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Досліджено особливості запровадження біометричних паспортів в Україні, переваги та недоліки таких документів. При вивченні проблемного питання було використано зарубіжний та вітчизняний досвід з метою максимально чіткого висвітлення проблеми.
Ключові питання: біометричний паспорт, біометричні дані, чіп, персональні дані
We researched the features of the introduction of biometric passports in Ukraine, advantages and disadvantages of such documents. Used foreign and domestic experience to maximize coverage problem clearly when studied the problem question
Key questions: biometric passport, biometric data, chip, the personal data
The introduction of biometric passports from 2015 created panic in society and led to problems in the state in connection with the installation of expensive equipment for the issuance of identity documents. In fact, the desire to join sooner to the European Union (hereinafter − EU) results in serious problems for every citizen of Ukraine who has designed a biometric passport. Therefore it is necessary to examine the consequences of such decision by public authorities.
Analysis of recent research presented by scientists such as V. Havlovskyy, M. Gutsulyak, R. Kalyuzhny, A. Kravets, J. Smith, M. Parkhomenko, M. Shvets, V. Tsimbalyuk and others.
It is important to structure the advantages and disadvantages of the consequences of the introduction of passports, attracting international experience and domestic realities. We studied the question of consequences as for primarily necessity for a change of normal biometric passport.
Problem: explore the advantages and disadvantages of the introduction of biometric passports in Ukraine.
The main material research. Biometric passports in the world introduced in 2001 after the terrorist attacks in New York and operating in 90 countries for security integration and prevent international terrorism .
Daily The Migration service departments make out more than 8000 applications for registration of citizens passport. In our state a law of Ukraine “About the Unified State Register of demographic and documents certifying the citizenship of Ukraine, identity the human or her special status” under which the passport application procedure of the new model and the documents have not changed. You should give an internal passport of citizen of Ukraine and the registration number of the taxpayer which returning after the procedure. At the request a citizen may order a new passport with electronic media (the so-called chip) or without it. The difference is that the chip in a biometric passport will be introduced digitized person’s photo, signature and fingerprints but in another variant of passport data will not be.
The cost of a biometric passport (with an electronic chip) as usual (20 days) is 518 hryven 15 kopecks, promptly (7 days) − 775 hryven 30 kopecks. The cost of a passport of citizen of Ukraine for traveling abroad without electronic media is at the same time under 461hryven 15 kopecks and 718 hryven 30 kopecks. Biometric passports are issued for 10 years and passports issued before January 1, 2015, remain in full force before the end of their actions .
Forms of biometric passports produced Polygraph “Ukraine”. It is a state-owned enterprise which is in the management of the National Bank of Ukraine. Equipment and maintenance of the system on which will be issued biometric passports, carries the same state enterprise “Ukrainian Special Systems” which is in the area of State Special .
Advantages of biometric passports is both shortcomings, so examine:
1) using the latest technology makes counterfeiting of electronic documents is almost impossible. The myth that biometric passports are safe shatter a few years ago. In 2008 in Europe there was a wave of protests against biometric chips. In Germany, the hackers released fingerprints of prime minister to prove how easy it is to substitute man. In Amsterdam, several scientists deceived reader machine at the airport. Passed control under the name of Osama bin Laden and Elvis Presley;
2) protection of personal data. Market “Petrovka” always secretly selling information databases. The entire Ukraine became known biography, address the whole way of life “Karavansky shooter.” Secret police merged the information. “There is a big question in this situation: can we trust in state such information? I think it is still impossible, ” − says activist of human rights Dmytro Groisman. The weaknesses of the law in his own name: “United register of all documents.” This means that the database biographies of each Ukrainian will be in the hands That is why the underground trade by documents can gain enormous momentum.
3) is one of the conditions of the membership in EU. According to the author of law Vasily Gritsak, the law seems to need us to be allowed in Europe. However, the procedure for obtaining a visa from the passport will not change. They glued the all 32 pages. The electronic chip with biometric data, including fingerprints will be sewn in the passport − a truly international requirements. Then Ukrainian will have to buy not one but 15 new documents. These include internal passport, driver’s license, migrant card and even crew member certificate. In fact, no one in Europe requires that this internal document should be biometric .
4) passport data will help public authorities to protect each of unforeseen criminal acts. Today in Ukraine there is a database about individual biometric data, data on relatives, marital status and place of registration which is actively created and filled. No one is interested in how the data will be handled, who will do it, where it then transmitted, whom it manages, maintains and uses in the future. Often, the mention of collecting information in fillable forms printed in small type, so no re-read written or explore forms that are filled, most Ukrainian not used and do not want. The most Ukrainian do not want to understand that a single registry of citizens analogues already exist and information on each of us is collected, processed and systematized constantly. That is why many do not even realize that a single registry of citizens analogues already exist, and information on each of us is collected, processed and systematized constantly. At the same time the owner of the e-passport will not be able to verify the data stored in the personal file-folder.
Drawbacks of these documents is that:
1) tracked by you any where in the world you are part of the system;
2) they are furious excitementfor it and people line up as in Soviet times for food.
3) the chip in the passport can be damaged badly bent paper;
4) if the passport would break so you become the open book and too vulnerable. The data from this microchip identifying each person and their “drain” can bring a big trouble to the owner;
5) violated provisions of the Constitution of Ukraine because it would create a single state demographic register which is an electronic information and telecommunication system. Adding data to the public registry provides extremely easy opportunity to observe the movement of the person, violations of freedoms.
Through innovations of documents, government can control individually and impact on the activities of civil society. The opportunity to avoid rallies, strikes, revolutions, deactivates citizens in the quest to protect their rights and freedoms. The authourity could keep an eye on one the without thinking, guided by citizens. Because in such way state do not need to spend extra money, resources, undermine the authority for permanent settlement issues.
Conclusions. The introduction of biometric passports is a new step in reforming our state. Today in Ukraine already published 1300 biometric passports. However, the Law of Ukraine “On the Unified State Register of demographic” allows to government interference in the private life of a citizen, family, allows to control the actions of citizens regardless of their desire that is a violation of the Constitution of Ukraine.
. Biometric passport: Myths and Reality: [electronic resource]. – Access: http://ot.kr.ua/biometrichnij-pasport-mifi-i-realnist.html.
. On the Unified State Register of demographic and documents certifying the citizenship of Ukraine, of identity or her special status as of 6 February 2015: [electronic resource]. – Access: http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/5492-17.
 .Who will have access to holders of biometric passports ?: [electronic resource]. – Access: http://www.radiosvoboda.org/content/article/26710268.html.
. Biometric trap: the Ukrainian threatens the introduction of electronic passports: [electronic resource]. – Access: http://tsn.ua/ukrayina/biometrichna-pastka-chim-zagrozhuye-ukrayincyam-vvedennya-elektronnih-pasportiv.html