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У статті досліджено аналіз порушення мовних норм сучасної української літературної мови на сторінках друкованих видань Хмельниччини Трудівник Полісся» та «Вісник громади».
Ключові слова: мовна норма, мовленнєва культура, мовленнєві неточності, анормативи, писемне мовлення журналістів.
n the article has been researched abnormity of modern literary Ukrainian on the pages of the Khmelnitsky printed newspapers «Trudivnyk Polissya» and «Visti hromady».
Key words: linguistic norms, linguistic culture, linguistic inaccuracies, abnormity, journalist writing.
What does the phrase «own literary language» mean? Firstly, obviously, it is a distinguishing varieties of the national language, literary standard, territorial and social dialects, a sense of language communication, where priority is given to certain functional style. Because literary language – is an extensive system oriented to various functional areas of communication styles and genre varieties.
The usage of literary language also means keeping codified standards, develop practical, mainly automatical experience in using vocabulary, idiomatic treasures, lexical-semantic variants, synonymous syntax to achieve understanding and the desired impact on the participants of communication. Automatism in use of linguistic means does not mean mindless, formal relation to the word. He must provide the speed, ease of finding the right expression in individual memory and language revitalization in its communication practice.
Language culture periodicals – an important indicator of publishing in the country. Unfortunately, many printed periodicals are not examples of literacy. Because of this, the need for improving the process of editing, raising language culture in modern printing media is of particular relevance.
«Culture speech – said Ponomariv O. D. – called observance of established linguistic norms oral and written literary language and conscious, usage of language and means of expression depending on the purpose and circumstances of communication. The main task of the cultural text language media materials are:
– Educational skills of literary communication;
– Promotion of literature and learning standards in word usage, design of grammatical language;
– Rejection of distorted speech or maslin» [5, p. 113 – 115].
Each position in this list is the duty of the media. These components priory should cover modern concepts, both printed and electronic media. If publishers of printed books consider rigorous language training is necessary, editors, lamenting on the lack of time, increasingly ignore the flaws and linguistic clumsiness, but media consumers appeal to the press, radio and television as models: the credibility gained during her journalism history, works on every edition. Therefore, in terms of professional and compete citizen journalism – blogosphere, cited aspects of language culture can and should be a significant advantage in professional media with quality information.
The purpose of the article is to highlight the main common errors on the pages of modern Ukrainian publications.
Along with such important issues of language culture as mastering the rules of orthography, lexicology, pronunciation and word emphasis, importance should also studing and proper usage of language expression depending on the purpose and content of expression, governed grammatical rules by their language.
Grammatical norm of the modern Ukrainian literary language are divided into morphological (regulating the right choice of morphological forms of words during the shaping and inflection, and their combination) and syntax (define normative construction of phrases and sentences).
The most important features of categorical speech culture is the accuracy of oral and written speech and its normativity. «Accuracy is provided by the full of matchiry of those words and their concepts, concepts that were fixed in speech as linguistic units» [3, p. 243 – 245].
Speech errors is are the violation of linguistic norms.Ppay attention to this problemin their works B. Antonenko-Davidovich, P. Dudyk, L. Macko, A. Ponomariv, V. Rusanivskiy, A. Serbenska.
In written language, editorsof modern Ukrainian media (for example, publications: («Visti hromady», «Trudivnyk Polissya») published during September – January 2014, the infringement was recorded syntactic, morphological, grammatical rules and so on. Anormaties can be explained as a lack of philological competence of the speakers and the complexity of the rules that prevent their successful assimilation and application.
The most common violations are distinction of connotations meanings of word. (For example, in printed periodicals got education («Student got education at Kiev university, and is happy», «Ukrainian students often seek to getting education abroad,» Ukrainian spelling, edited by the Institute of Linguistics of. O. O. Potebni NAS of Ukraine provides information that education can only gain).
In particular, the usage of non-standard loans, loan translation Russian. For example, the usage of the word «university» that does not meet standards of Ukrainian literary language («Vinnytsia Regional Center for Educational Quality Assessment reports that metropolitan universities are in great demand),» university «- a higher educational institution properly according to training Great Dictionary of Modern Ukrainian Language, edited by B. Busel need to use the word (university) higher education institution; «Magazine» Ukraine «is not only a good read, but good looks» (from Russian Good look at) points to an incorrect translation of words and phrases from Russian.
Problems in the system adjective is the emergence of numerous errors in the creation and using of the adjective degrees of comparison («The most important issue of the day agenda – is to find inaccuracies of situation,» analytic forms degrees of comparison of adjectives with the same component is not standard in the Ukrainian language. The usage of the word in the same analytic forms instead more as possible, according to the analytical the current Ukrainian spelling rulles, «In a broader sense, the article is quite thorough,» form of degree of adjective is formed by connecting words more to less conventional comparative forms of qualitative adjective. Under current spelling rules, you should use in a broader sense).
Numerous errors seen during usage and paradigm of numerals in Ukrainian language («Competition was announced by four students» instead of the required four, «Two students have achieved good results in the fight for victory» in compounds with masculine nouns – names instead of their own beings quantitative two numerals three, four is appropriate to use collective numerals two, three and similar: two students, «As it turned out not enough fifty newspapers» instead of the required five hundred).
Deviation from morphological rules represents nouns in usage of the Ukrainian language in inappropriate way («Good old tulle decorated window», the use of the noun in tulle alien to him like that, instead of the desired masculine, «Fast Pony frightened children,» derogation from morphological rules, the usage of the noun, that means the name of the animal kind in neutral gender, as opposed to male).
A significant drawback is the frequent usage of inappropriate sources of information in case («The girl was the oldest in a large family instead of» desired OV singular, «Scientists have elemental analysis of stone» Invalid use during inflexion -I inflection of the noun in the singular second R.v cancellation masculine, «A copy of the passport must be in the list of documents», take the passport).
Imperfect as for publications is the usage of vocative case («Maria, take, please pencil», is the usage of nominative instead of vocative is of violation of grammatical rules Ukrainian literary language).
Cases of non-normative coordination adjective with a noun («This warm April day most memorable graduates,» instead of the desired April).
The frequency of usage lexical errors in periodicals («In this case, the government made the right choice» inappropriate use of the word correctly, instead of the desired true, «However, this contains a number of recommendations for radical improvement and acceleration of the commission», wrong to take the token number instead required series).
Thus, the analysis of texts of publications in terms of their compliance to grammatical, spelling, vocabulary norms of modern Ukrainian literary language indicates that mostly the research of unnormative events allowed to identify a high degreeof linguistic risk in the process of editing of journalistic materials. The quality and proper compliance with the above listed aspects of speech and expression will depend on the level of excellence possession of oral and written language of journalist, the editor in the information, familiarizationof the reader, data transmission and quality of verbal skills and the readiness to fluent technique Ukrainian culture and Ukrainian language press.
- Bondarenko T. G. Linguistic typology of errors and eliminate them during the editing of journalistic materials / T. G. Bondarenko. – K .: 2003. – S. 15 – 18.
- Voloschak M.V. Wrong – right. Directory of Ukrainian usage, the materials of the media / M. V. Voloschak. – K .: Publishing House «Enlightenment», 2003. – S. 64 – 70.
- Zdoroveha V. J. Theory and Methods of journalistic excellence / V. J. Zdoroveha. – L .: Pais. – 2008. – S. 243 – 245.
- Ponomariv O. D. Culture Ponomariv words: linguistic-stylistic tips: teach. guidances. / O. D. Ponomarev. – K .: Lybid. – 1999. – S. 113 – 115.