The image of the teacher in dramatic poem by Ivan Drach «The Ballad of a teacher»

This article analyzes the image of the teacher in dramatic poem by Ivan Drach «The Ballad of a teacher» and clarifying the specifics of artistic dramatic poem.

Key words: dramatic poem, image, principle of education.

Ivan Drach – represent sixties. His work seemed genres such as ballad, a poem, a poem-symphony and many others. The poet repeatedly was investigated by critics. M. Ilnytskyi contemplates of the creative ways of the artist.

Tkachenko reveals peculiarities of poetics: «internal and external polemical, dramatic poetics of I. Drach transmitted, including, oksymoronno-paradoxical phrases that seemed to cover the state of mind» [8, p. 9]. V. Herman investigated neologisms Drach’s poetry. Moral and aesthetic impacts in poetic drama contemplate M. Kudryavtsev.

The research of dramatic poems by Ivan Drach is actual fact because his poems playwright violates the principles of creative education and identity formation. Moreover, Drach concentrated attention on the problem of man and a dead man, which is also relevant today.

Thus, ideological and thematic features of dramatic poems by Ivan Drach were not been the object of scientific comprehension.

In the work we used modern research works about life and work by Ivan Drach, namely Andryichenko I., Demyanivska L., Zhulinskyi M., Bidovanets T., Krylovets A., Melnychuk B., Tkachuk M., Shevchuk V.

The creation by Ivan Drach just more than half a century is investigated by literary critics. Ivan Drach began his creative path during the «Khrushchev thaw». He made his debut in 1961, when Kiev «Literary Gazette» published his poem-tragedy «Knife in the sun».

In the poet’s complicated naturally combined with the simplicity of drawing associativity, extraordinary precision observations and unexpected novelty comparing different areas, which caused controversy in various critics. Scholar of Ivan Drach M. Ilnytskyi observes: «I think in that way find verge grip remote concepts and phenomena, select from sparks of meaning and emotional richness» [3, p. 32] – the characteristics of his poetic style.

  1. Ilnytskyi wrote: «What does determine the type of talent? Voice recognition in each row, loyalty elected principles of poetic language, motives or ability to change each time in response to new realities, new trends in the literary process, new techniques in writing? When such criterion approaches to the works by Ivan Drach, the answer is ambiguous. For his poetry is the full characteristic the first and second» [3, p. 67].

Many scientists were studied the works by Ivan Drach, including: L. Demyanivska «Ukrainian dramatic poem», M. Zhukinskyi «Ivan Drach // Ukrainian Literary Encyclopedia», V. Kovtun «Ivan Drach: Attempt portrait of Ukrainian politics», A. Tkachenko «Ivan Drach – poet, screenwriter and politician», «The artistic world of Ivan Drach», «Ivan Drach // The history of Ukrainian literature of the twentieth century». Moreover, Tkachuk M. explored Drach’s creativity at work «Ivan Drach // Ukrainian language and literature».

Ivan Drach is constantly in creative work and creative search. As Boris Olyinyk rightly observes, Drach’s poetry gives grounds to say that without it modern literary course is not conceived.

In basis of «The Ballad of a teacher» is laying very real dramatic fate prototype, the famous rural educator V. O. Sukhomlynskyi that is much ahead of his time.

  1. Ilnytskyi praised a poem very well: «The teacher raises it to his full height as a teacher, as a citizen, as a person… The product is a step in the writer, his talent was discovered new faces…» [3, p. 90].

Ivan Drach was created a great author’s work with a flamboyant character and teaching drama and showed outstanding Soviet educator Sukhomlynskyi with creative research, personal stories of fate.

The title is metaphorical as an image of Teacher – it is a collective metaphorical image, the prototype of which is Vasyl Sukhomlynskyi and combining the images of other outstanding teachers of the world: Ushynskyi, Comenskyi, Pestalozzi, Skovoroda, Korczak and Makarenko.

Moreover, in «The word to the reader» highlights the extraordinary importance of the main theme of the work – the teaching profession, raising it to universal horizons, identifying all people from students and teachers:

Each of us is a teacher, reader,

All of us – are both pupils and teachers.

All of us in his good and evil

Is carrying someone cold and hot love (1, p. 152).

Ivan Drach, with the author’s words, which are a circular frame work, announces the arrival of a young teacher from Germany in Pavlyshchany. The teacher is opposed to Makarenko:

Makarenko – is forged man

A teacher – he sculpted it. The difference

Between smith and sculptor (1, p. 159).

  1. S. Makarenko – is a real teacher, organizer of the production of cameras, writer. About all that survived with his pupils, the difficulties of converting little indifferent and cynical teenager man, the teacher described in fine works: «Pedagogical Poem», «Flags on the towers», «The book for parents». With extraordinary curiosity and wonder you read how many had to have the soul of warmth, love, kindness to their particles were transferred to inmates! Location teacher drew patience that showed exceptional intelligence, tact in communicating with pupils colony.

If A. Makarenko proved feasibility through education of staff in his pedagogical writings, the wonderful Ukrainian teacher V. Sukhomlynskyi defended the idea of pedagogical influence on the development of the individual student.

In «The Ballad of a teacher» Ivan Drach addressed to the problems of pedagogy, raised the question of the past, present and future of education and culture, the principles of public education, that influence on the inner spiritual world of man, in general about the traditions of Ukrainian ethnopedagogy, asserts innovative teaching by Vasyl Sukhomlynskyi.

Moreover, in «the word to the reader» highlights the extraordinary importance of the main theme of the work – the teaching profession, raising it to universal horizons, identifying all people from students and teachers:

 Each of us is a teacher, reader,

All of us – are both pupils and teachers.

All of us in his good and evil

Is carrying someone cold and hot love (1, p. 152).

In Sukhomlynskyi’s words we find the main idea of the work – the formation of a good man. Anatolyi Tkachenko wrote: «Compassion and confidence to the child, to adolescent Sukhomlynskyi considered the very first real teacher’s credo» [8, p. 35].

In «The Prologue» Ivan Drach highlights:

Each teacher – is a solid drama.

This knot of winds is blowing everywhere.

And so, as our teacher.

The same each and every step of his intention –

It explosives, compressed, pressed

Nature of subtle and powerful will be (1, p. 154).

  1. Sukhomlynskyi wanted youth was strong, clever, intentive, active in public life. Educator hotly defended the idea that everything in the world is of the child in the process of education should prevail kindness. In the episode of Makarenko’s work, the hero of the work emphasizes:

So argument again and do not be ashamed of repetitions,

Make a fresh arguments

Want the old in a new way,

And that the truth was a true (1, p. 204).

Ivan Drach relates the Teacher and artist, calls him a sculptor, because good and educated person – is a kind masterpiece teacher.

In «The living Pavlyshchanskyi school book of impressions» are existing opinions of teachers of different people. They are convinced that the principles of education, which the teacher follows are correct.

In the section «Mariana and Walter with love» is formulated another principle of education:

Cruelty – is a terrible bacillus!

She has enormous inertial forces.

She is selfdevelopping – no restraint.

And cruelty masked demands.

Propagated myriad.

And simple logic ends:

Cruelty is becoming cruelty… (1, p. 186).

In the last part the Teacher appear before the court within the teachers of the world: Korczak, Skovoroda, Makarenko, Pestalozzi. For Teacher – this is a court of eternity, which is represented all that in my life man made.

The final of this poem is «To the authors», which is extremely well exalting all teachers, rises to the level of the saint:

These are teachers, out best people.

We all cherish the steep roads,

Hurt future, school, your chest –

Be hallowed your simple threshold (1, p. 205).

All in all, from the beginning of creative activity Ivan Drach distinguished himself not only as a true master of the lyric genre. He successfully implemented his creative possibilities in dramatic poems, which include a special innovation for the genre level. The creativity by Ivan Drach is a beautiful and unusual world. Poet inherents looseness creative thought, non-traditional poetic form and style. In his poems and verses is original metaphorical way of thinking, the ability to make poetry with concepts and phenomena that were previously beyond artistic beauty. Ivan Drach can easily with deliberate solemnity translate the painful reality into the language of symbols, hyperbolic metaphors, associations, own lyrical experience he intertwines in the ideological and semantic «full range» of historical allusions and surrealistic visions: the poet actively uses direct language, makes bold social-protest accents, combining them with allegorical and symbolic images-generalizations. The poet is wide-ranging, he takes care about blossom of national culture, thinks about identity of our state, saving and prime of our language as the basis of spiritual life of nation. Therefore, the basis motives of his poems are patriotism, love to country, belief in the omnipotence in science and engineering, disclosure issues confrontation light and dark beginnings, chaos and cosmos in human being, solar motifs. Creativity by Ivan Drach, covering different genres (a ballad, a poem, a poem-symphony and others), repeatedly was investigated by critics and literary critics. The name of Ivan Drach is closely related too definition of «The Sixties». However, among his other contemporaries and features that is never clear. His poetry does not fit the usual rules, into the framework of a single line style, creative manner. Ivan Drach is constantly in creative work and creative search. His figure in our history will stand next to the writers who were not only prophets, but also the creator of Ukrainian statehood.


  1. Demyanivska L. S. Ukrainian dramatic poem / L. S. Demyanivska. – K., 1984. – 158 p.
  2. Zhulinskyi M. G. Ivan Drach / M. G. Zhulinskyi // Ukrainian Literary Encyclopedia : In 5 t. K. : Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia named M. Bazhan, 1990. – T. 2. – P. 108 – 109.
  3. Ilnytskyi M. M. Ivan Drach / M. M. Ilnytskyi. – K., 1986. – 165 p.
  4. Kovtun V. Ivan Drach : Attempt portrait of Ukrainian politics / V. Kovtun. – K., 1998. – 80 p.
  5. Krylovets A. O. Ukrainian literature of the first decades of the twentieth century : philosophical problems / A. O. Krylovets. – Ternopol : Educational book. – Bogdan, 2005. – 256 p.
  6. Sun and the word : Strokes to the portrait of Ivan Drach // Ukrainian language and literature at school. – 1986. – № 10.
  7. Tkachenko A. Ivan Drach // The history of Ukrainian literature of the twentieth century : In 2 books / Ed. V. Donchyk. – K., 1998. – B. 2. – 365 p.
  8. Tkachenko A. The art of Ivan Drach / A. Tkachenko. – K., 1992. – 166 p.

The list of used sources

  1. Drach I. Selected works : In 2 books. B. 2 : poetry dramatic poems / Ivan Drach. – K. : Dnieper, 1986. – 608 p.
  2. Drach I. Sunny phoenix : Poetry. Dramatic poems / I. Drach. – K. : Youth, 1978. – 160 p.

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