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У статті розглянуто особливості соціального становища окремих груп населення, проблематику соціальної ізоляції та інклюзії. Особлива увага зосереджена на методах вирішення потреб людей з інвалідністю, гарантуванні належних умов реалізації їх прав та свобод як рівноправних громадян держави.
Ключові слова: соціальна ізоляція, інклюзія, інвалідність, дискримінація.
In the article describes the features of the social situation of certain population’s groups, problems of social exclusion and inclusion. Particular attention is focused on the methods of solving the needs of people with disabilities, ensuring appropriate conditions for realization of their rights and freedoms as equal citizens.
Key words: social exclusion, inclusion, disablement, discrimination.
The issue of human rights has always been a question of availability (stratification of society and equal division between higher and lower over time). Accessibility issues in the plane of human rights lies primarily in providing of people the opportunity to live independently and have the right to access all resources to exercise their rights. It should be noted that the issue of accessibility exist despite legislative strengthening and even clearly calculated mechanism for its implementation. There is also an issue of accessibility, despite legislative strengthening and clearly calculated mechanisms for implementation. While there is an established principle of equality for all state citizens, negative effects such as illegal inequality exist also. Society and the state, reaching new economic and technological heights, lift citizens to a new level of development while others are left behind. The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms indicates that the enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, color, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status. However, historic formations, traditions and mentality create inequality, which continues to exist and gain scale. There is a new development evident in many cases of discrimination that is gaining more momentum and leads to irreversible changes in society. It is social isolation, also called social exclusion.
This concept of social exclusion, or isolation, was formed in developed European countries as a unique method of describing the situation of certain groups in the state population. The concept is widely used in many countries in order to characterize the modern forms of social obstacles to proper human rights availability for different segments of the population. In some countries, the concept of social exclusion is legally established. For example, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted in 1993,at the World Conference of human Rights states that, extreme poverty and social exclusion violate human dignity: and we need to take urgent measures to achieve a better understanding of the causes of poverty and to eliminate them in order to defend the rights of the poorest people and put an end to social exclusion.
In a European Commission report, the EC defines social exclusion as a process by which groups or individuals are “pushed” to the margins of society and become unable to participate fully in public life because of their poverty, lack of basic knowledge and capabilities, and also because of discrimination. They have limited access to government and participation in decisions that affect their livelihoods and, accordingly, do not have authority and capacity to participate in the development and discussion of such decisions. So, even though there are relevant conventions and legislation to protect human rights and ensure them for all, other factors such as social exclusion prevent this from happening.
When analyzing the problems associated with the phenomenon of social exclusion, special attention should be paid to the social position of people with disabilities, and what actually makes them excluded. Lack of rights or equality for the disabled is a newer concept than similar treatment due to race, gender, or social class; a situation that has become apparent in more recent years and presents a new dynamic of human rights issues. Is it the physical defect itself that excludes them from opportunities or discrimination because of it such as a person being excluded from access to a building because of that defect? It should be noted that the social exclusion of people with disabilities is the lack of conditions for the realization of their rights to education, employment, health care, access to needed resources and services and not the disability itself. For example, under certain circumstances, a cause of social isolation for them may be the unavailability of public transport that makes it impossible to arrive at their work places, employment center, medical institutions, entertainment establishments, etc.
The problem lies in the attitude of others towards people with disabilities and legal regulation in this sphere which treats them primarily as patients who require medical services first and citizens second. This limitation on equality is less apparent than direct discrimination due to race, for example, and is even more difficult to address because the discrimination is much less obvious. Omitting resources for the disabled is a more difficult kind of discrimination to prove and address than more obvious violations of human rights such as lack of rights due to gender or race. It is important to remember that people with disabilities are citizens of the state, same as all of us and they are capable of proving themselves in the cultural, economic, political, financial and scientific spheres. Such specific relationships require conscientious compliance of general principles set in classic human rights conventions and newer legislative initiatives such as the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which requires:
•Respect for inherent dignity, individual autonomy including the freedom to make one’s own choices, and independence of persons;
•Full and effective participation and inclusion in society;
•Respect for difference and acceptance of persons with disabilities as part of human diversity and humanity;
•Equality of opportunity;
•Equality between men and women;
•Respect for the evolving capacities of children with disabilities and respect for the rights of children with disabilities to preserve their identities
An alternative to social exclusion is a concept called social inclusion, the former being more common than the latter. Society ceased to believe in utopia, not realizing that they are the only source of power and all leverage over control is in their hands. Thus, the term social inclusion appeared as opposed to the spread of discrimination cases and inequality in society. It covers a wide range of strategies and resources focused on those groups who are disadvantaged relative to others. The defining point of the concept of social inclusion regarding people with disabilities, for example, is a sufficient level of material and moral support for them to implement their goals themselves and suggest opportunities for learning, creativity, and intellectual personal growth. A number of points also complement this with appreciation, recognition, and respect for people with disabilities.
In my opinion, making hackneyed concepts and strategies with the expectation of solving the spread of inequality in society is useless. The concept of inclusion should be a simple guideline for implementation of equality in which a specific state structure should be taken into account. This unique combination of operations, to my mind, lies in harmonization between the state policy and guarantees for the circumstances of citizens such as care for people who suffer disabilities. This will, probably, cause the expected positive changes in the situations of people with disabilities at both the legal and moral level.
Certainly, by looking for those responsible for the processes of discrimination and inequality, one can always refer to the imperfection of the legislative regulation of this issue and inefficiency of management decisions. However, from my point of view, the root of the problem is buried deeper, in the minds of all of us. We must develop internal tolerant attitudes towards people with disabilities and should remember that civil society and the rule of law begin with every citizen of the country. Human rights do not depend on the state of health of medical diagnosis. Health status determines only which support this person requires from others and the state in order to feel full members of society without any discrimination.
1. European Convention on Human Rights: Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, – Rome, November 11,1950 – [Electronic resource] –http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf
2. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action: World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, June 25, 1993 – [Electronic resource] – http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/Vienna.aspx
3. The Social Determinants of URBAN MENTAL HEALTH: Paving the Way Forward: Global conference, September 19-20, 2012, 17 North Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60602, USA / Adler School of Professional Psychology – [Electronic resource] – http://www.adler.edu/page/institutes/institute-on-social-exclusion/2012-conference/about-the-conference
4. Equal in rights worldwide: [The European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights ] – 2007-2010 / European Commission – [Electronic resource] –http://www.eidhr.eu/files/dmfile/EUAID_EIDHR_Activityreport_EN_LR_201106072.pdf
5. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Final report of the Ad Hoc Committee on a Comprehensive and Integral International Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities on its eighth session – 6 December 2006, – [Electronic resource] – http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/N06/645/30/PDF/N0664530.pdf?OpenElement