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У статті досліджено особливості фінансування інноваційної діяльності, аналіз основних проблем фінансування інноваційної діяльності підприємств в Україні та їх наслідки.
Ключові слова: інноваційна діяльність, фінансування.
In the article we investigate the features of financing innovative sphere, analysis of the main problems of financing innovation program in Ukraine and their consequences.
Keywords: innovation, funding
Problem setting. Innovation program is one of the most important factors of systemic social and economic development and national security state. For Ukraine, which is largely losing in recent years the scientific and innovation potential, so enhancing innovation is essential. Therefore, the relevance of the research is determining the specific aspects of the financing of these activities.
Last scientific researches and publications analysis. The issue of providing innovative development of the state and individual enterprise were researched by leading national scholars, including: B. Denysyuk, L. Fedulova, M. Charcot and others. B. Denysyuk notes that the increase in innovation program at all levels of the national economy is a priority objective of public policy: the establishment of adequate conditions require investments, reducing the risk of innovation funding, structure optimization, organizational forms and sources of funding. L. Fedulova proves that the problem of innovation program is complex. The priority in this area is to determine the optimum ratio of the amount of financial resources allocated for the implementation of individual stages of the acquisition, use, and create new knowledge.
Formulation of the article’s purpose. The purpose of this article is to determine the main aspects of innovation financing in Ukraine.
The statement of basic material of research. Today innovation for development is an essential and even crucial determinant of economic growth of any country in the world. It is necessary and appropriate replacement is the process of innovation in many industrial countries and even entire industries, as a future image of the national innovation system will largely depend on the capacity of the state in time to mobilize their internal innovation capacity .
Stressing the need to revitalize the innovation sector, it should be noted that in recent years the government adopted a number of resolutions and decisions of government programs aimed at improving the innovation performance of enterprises, but most of them failed to be realized in full in the real economy. It is therefore natural law of Ukraine “On National Security of Ukraine’s» № 964-IV dated 19.06.03 refers to strengthening innovative model of a major national priority (Article 6 of the Law). At the same time in Article7 of the Law is specified that the inefficiency of the state innovation policy mechanisms to stimulate innovation activities threaten the national security of Ukraine. In fact, we are dealing with ineffective innovative policy. However, the responsibility for this no one has, the law in this respect is not valid.
Legislation approving the 1.7% of GDP as a ratio of budget funding for science, the state allocates for many years to science only 0.3% of GDP. Every new president and every new government of independent Ukraine proclaimed science and innovation as one of the most important strategic components of the state ideology of social and economic .
As a result, over the last 22 years in Ukraine:
- 3.3 times decreased the number of workers in innovation (in the U.S. and Western Europe in that time it has grown 2 times in Southeast Asia – to 4-fold);
- 3.5 times decreased the number of researchers in technical sciences (with 5.6 times increased their numbers in political scientists, 3.5 – in law);
- decreased to 14.3 times the development of new technology;
- 5.5 times (from 60% to 11.2%) dropped share of innovation active enterprises (in Russia, their share is 10%, -16 in Poland in the EU – an average of 60);
- almost completely destroyed industry science (of 220 organizations, only 20 left);
- GDP growth through the introduction of new technologies in Ukraine is 0.7%, meanwhile in developed countries this figure is 60-90%.
- Enhancing innovations is only possible on the basis of a developed system of financing that is designed to provide a solution of the following major tasks:
1. Creating the necessary conditions for rapid and effective innovation sphere at all levels of the national economy, ensuring its structural and technological restructuring;
2. Preservation and development of strategic scientific and technological capabilities in priority areas of development;
3. Creating the necessary material conditions for the preservation of human resources of science and technology, to prevent his moving abroad.
The main source of funding for innovation in Ukraine during the 2000-2012 biennium are own funds, the share of which in 2012 accounted for 63.9% of total expenditure on innovation, whose share declined from 79.6%. Significant amounts of funding are other sources which share ranges from 9-46% and foreign investors – 0,4-30% in different years.
Financing of scientific and technical work in Ukraine during 2000-2011 raise by 4.7 times, but for 2010-2011 decreased by 3.9%. The structure of funding sources accounted for the largest share of the state budget, the highest of which was in 2007-2009. During this period of rising share in the financing of own funds on demand enterprises of Ukraine and foreign countries .
The main problem of financing innovation program in Ukraine are: lack of state financial support for innovative projects of various sizes, which are realized in the industry; insufficient funding from the private sector (through risks, problems with the commercialization of innovative products, etc.); “Innovative” orientation or negligible activity created innovative (state) and venture capital (private, mostly foreign-born) funds as well as their minor financial investment opportunities; lack of mechanisms for the redistribution of public investment resources for the innovation sector; lack of interest of foreign investors in the financing of national innovation sector .
Conclusion. Today in Ukraine is an important enhancement of attention of state and society in general to the level of innovation, the formation of innovation culture of the nation, creating the conditions for the formation of public-private partnerships, as well as the choice of optimal forms and sources of funding in innovation and creation of innovation.
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