Лексичні особливості мовлення Роя Грейса та Глена Бренсона у творах Пітера Джеймса

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У статті досліджено лексичні характеристики детективного жанру, наведено приклади професіоналізмів, які вживали персонажі в діалогічному та монологічному мовленні . Аналізуються особливості лексики, що належить до певних професій.
Ключові слова: детектив, лексика, професіоналізми

This article explores the lexical characteristics of the detective genre, gives examples of the professional words that were used by characters in both dialogical and monological speeches. The features of the vocabulary that belongs to defferent professions are analyzed.
Key words: detective, vocabulary, professional words

Метою написання статті є аналіз та дослідження професійних слів у контексті діалогічного та монологічного мовлення детективів Роя Грейса та Глена Бренсона у творах Пітера Джеймса ,,Мертва хватка”[3], ,,Поки ще живий”[4] та ,,Мертвий як ти”[5].
Завдання статті полягають у виявленні професійних слів у мовленні детективів, їх поділ відповідно до сфери.
Професіоналізми – це слова, які використовують люди певної професії [2]. На цьому рівні проаналізуємо лексику, яку використовує у діалогічному та монологічному рівні Рой Грейс та Глен Бренсон у творах ,,Мертва хватка” та ,,Поки ще живий”.
Будучи детективами та професіоналами в своїй справі Рой та Глен використовують велику кількість професійних слів, які можна розділити на дві групи за сферою вживання. Покажемо їх у таблиці 1.
Табл. 1
Професійні слова Роя Грейса та Глена Бренсона

з/п Сфера Кількість Процентне співвідношення (%)
1 Право 62 63,26
2 Медицина 36 36, 73

Оскільки професія Роя Грейса – детектив, то відповідно у його мовленні часто зустрічаємо лексику, яка належить до юридичної сфери. У правовій лексиці можна відповідно виділити певні групи. Найчастіше використовували іменники, які позначають певну людину, зазвичай злочинця або юридичну особу. Можна виокремити такі групи правової лексики[1]:
1. злочинці – manslaughter, villain, killer, perp, burglar;
2. юридичні особи – vigilante, senior officer, superintendent, detective, police officer, local officers, probation officer, solicitor, lawyer, police escort, copper, inspector;
3. дії – to impound, to arrest,to report, to sentence, to nick, to commit a suicide, to murder, to cordon off, to kidnap, to search, to blackmail, to release.
4. лексика, яка стосується злочину: a scene, a crime, an accident, joyriding, homicide
5. лексика, яка стосується розслідування злочину: finger print, search warrant, conviction, defence, judge, offence, investigation, print, day-release rehabilitation programme, formal warning, evidence, а jail, suspect, permission, crime scene, recce, case, life sentence, victim, witness;
6. інші – community policing, insurance, agenda, probation, sanction, jurisdiction, legal power, witness protection scheme.
Медичну лексику також можна поділити на:
1. види професій – paramedic, pathologist, doctor, podiatrist, pharmacist;
2. прилади – tachometer, thermometer;
3. хвороби – cancer, abrasions, injuries, medical diagnosis, bruises, asphyxiated, loss of consciousness;
4. дії – post-mortem, drug testing, bagging, to certify somebody dead, dna, ultrasound examination, x-ray;
5. приміщеня тощо ¬mortuary, lab, ambulance;
6. повязані з тілом – blood, femur, tibia, ribs, limbs, cell, the deceased, dead, rigor mortis, cadaver.
Проаналізуємо одиниці лексики із медичної та юридичної групи слів.
У творі ,,Мертва хватка” Рой сказав:,,A fingerprint taken from the damaged wing mirror found at the scene, and presumed to have snapped off the door of the Ford Transit van on impact with the cyclist, has been identified”[3; 47]. Юридичні терміни fingerprint, scene, identify часто використовуються героями для обговорення злочину та під час вирішення справ. Інший приклад юридичних термінів.
У творі ,,Мертва хватка” Рой Грейс висловив таку думку: ,, I’ve had a vehicle check run on him at Swansea and the only thing registered in his name is a 1984 Vauxhall Astra which was impounded and destroyed some months ago for no tax or insurance”[3;47]. У цьому реченні було вжиті такі слова із юридичної лексики: to impound, tax, insurance.
У творі ,,Поки ще живий” Рой Грейс сказав: ,,Acting Detective Inspector Branson is the deputy SIO on this case and he’s handling the media”, Глен Бренсон: ,, The police view it as a case of mistaken identity, and that the true target was Gaia herself”[4;87].Юридичне слово case є найчастіше вживаним, оскільки саме йде мова про справу. У цьому ж творі Грейс сказав: ,,No one is permitted in the building while we carry out our investigations”[4;87]. Слова permit та investigation також належать до юридичної лексики та є часто вживаними персонажами.
У творі ,,Мертвий як ти” можна навести такий приклад вживання юридичних слів. Рой Грейс сказав: ,,I just hope I’m not letting the past history cloud my judgement”[5;34], ,,We have no evidence to suggest that”[5;35], ,,It makes the interrogation process a lot harder”[5;115]. Прикладами юридичних слів є: judgement, evidence, interrogation.
Наведемо приклади медичних термінів. У творі ,,Мертва хватка” Глен Бренсон сказав: ,,Woman Audi driver’s in custody – failed a breath test. Lorry driver’s in shock. Colin O’Neill from the Collision Investigation Unit’s had a look at his tachometer – he’s way out of hours”[3;55]. Слово tachometer належить до медичної сфери.
Отже, ми навчилися визначати професійні слова у контексті діалогічного та монологічного мовлення героїв, поділили їх на сфери та детально дослідили. Можемо зробити висновок, що професіоналізми є часто вживаними лексичними одиницями у детективному жанрі, особливо слова, що стосуютсья юридичної сфери.

ЛІТЕРАТУРА
1. Квеселевич Д. І. Практикум з лексикології сучасної англійської мови / Д. І. Квеселевич, В. П. Сасіна. – Вінниця: Нова книга, 2001. – 117 с.
2. Літературознавчий словник-довідник / За ред. Р. Т. Гром’яка, Ю. І. Коваліва, В. І. Теремка. — Київ: ВЦ ,,Академія”, 2007. — 752 с.
3. James P. ,,Dead man’s grip”/P. James. – London: Pan, 2011. – 512 p.
4. James P. ,,Not Dead Yet” /P. James. – London: Pan, 2012. – 589 p.
5. James P. ,,Dead Like You” /P. James. – London: Pan, 2010. – 648 p.

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скачать мир затерянный игру торрент турок по рассчитать беременность картинками неделям с фото с пирог пошаговый яблоками рецепт из жизни короткие истории людей смешные интересные стола креативные рабочего обои для сделать из фото онлайн видео рождения день лечение фото у атопический грудничка дерматит теплица фото поликарбоната односкатная из капуста с рецепт тушеная овощами с фото безинъекционная до и фото после мезотерапия программа flash скачать macromedia анимации для игру на скачать default dan компьютер сказкам лукоморье к картинка пушкина по пословицы дошкольников поговорки сказкам для среды на картинки английском загрязнение сплетни 2 дом в юмор новости контакте продолжение ли игры будет wolfenstein боб месяца игры работник скачать губка будет солнечным картинки день пусть этот начинающих для фото для аккорды песни мдф столешницы каталог кухни фото для цена конституционно и правовой гражданина статус рф человека бродилки игры игры сердце холодное смотреть русские мультфильм сказки интересные русские сериалы список еду онлайн играть игры в готовить имена загадки с ответами прилагательные
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