IMPROVEMENTS IN MANAGEMENT BY THE PROMOTION OF DEPOSITE RESOURCE JSC «OSCHADBANK»
Оцінено сучасний стан депозитних операцій в АТ «Ощадбанк» та запропоновано напрями вдосконалення методів залучення ресурсів із депозитних джерел банку.
Ключові слова: депозитні ресурси, депозитний менеджмент, бенчмаркінг.
Оценено современное состояние депозитных операций в АО «Ощадбанк» и предложены направления совершенствования методов привлечения ресурсов с депозитных источников банка.
Ключевые слова:депозитные ресурсы, депозитный менеджмент, бенчмаркинг.
This paper has appraised the current state of deposit operations at JSC «Oschadbank» and suggested methods of attracting the resources from the deposits of the bank.
Keywords: resources deposit, deposit management, benchmarking.
Formulation of the problem. At the present stage of economic development, the formation of resource base of domestic banks plays a pivotal role in its efficient operation, since the availability of sufficient financial resources enables to undergo the active operation for obtaining the maximum level of profit and risk diversification. Deposit operations are the main source of the bank’s funding base, and one of the most important functions of the bank is rational allocation of temporarily surplus funds raised from the public and businesses that further are used for active operations. Attraction of temporarily free funds in deposit accounts contribute to the bank’s liquidity, increase of lending operations and the formation of effective structure, acceleration of cashless payments and reduction of the cost of funds compared with interbank loans. As far as the largest share of resource savings of the bank is from depositors, each bank aims to create a strong and stable deposit base. Moreover, today, since each bank has to compete for attracting temporarily free funds of population and legal entities, this issue has become of paramount importance for all banks. In this regard, all banks should appraise the situation and develop a series of measures to attract new customers and increase the deposit portfolio.
Analysis of recent research and publications. Lots of scientists take an interest in the issue of improving the management process of attracting resources from deposit sources. For example, conceptual framework related to the mobilization of bank resources were investigated in the works of Savluk M., S. Prince, A. Ashurbyekova, Ye. Hlinskyy and others.
The purpose of the study is to identify the methods of attracting resources from deposit sources at JSC «Oschadbank».
Summary of the basic material. Increased inflation, currency depreciation, the military conflict in the East, the high level of dollarization, increase currency risk and other problems have caused a deep crisis of the Ukrainian banking system. The result of unprecedented mix of political, financial, economic and banking crisis has resulted in a significant loss of people’s confidence in the banking sector and the outflow of deposits. Only since early 2015, domestic banking system has lost about UAH 58 billion and USD 11.4 billion of US client deposits, and even now banks cannot convince their customers of reliability, financial stability and guarantee the payment of deposits.
At present day JSC «Oschadbank» is the only bank in Ukraine that provides a one hundred percent guarantee of customer deposits – the return of the deposit guaranteed by the state in full amount and without restrictions. According to the ratings of reliability of bank deposits, Oschadbank has rating “A” which means the highest reliability and low sensitivity level to adverse external factors. The evidence of a high level of customer confidence in the bank is an annual positive upward trend in the value of deposits. In particular, during 2014 the value of retail deposits increased by UAH 20,367,490 thousand or 56.8%, and at the beginning of this year amounted to UAH 56,208,996 thousand. In structural terms, the largest share of savings was time deposits – 61.4% and demand deposits of individuals – 38.6% or UAH 21,693,178 thousand. The total account balance of top ten customers amounted to UAH 8665071 thousand (15%). In the structure of deposits by sector, the largest share of savings from individuals – 65.9% of the total deposits, while the lowest proportion of deposits accounted for the publishing sector, which amounted to UAH 40 537 thousand or 0.07% of total savings.
JSC «Oschadbank» offers a variety of deposit programs of term deposits from 3 to 36 months at an interest rate of 8% to 21% with a minimum deposit from UAH 100 to UAH 5000. The list of these deposits with differentiation conditions for each of them and a simple mechanism for opening a deposit account allows attracting more customers. The evidence to this fact is an increase in the total amount of deposits – UAH 24.7 billion during 2013-2015. During the studied years, most funds were attracted to the deposits Deposit, Savings and Combined. Taking into consideration that one of the indicators of reliability of banking institutions is its policy on interest rates on deposits, JSC «Oschadbank» never offers its customers excessive interest rates on deposits. In terms of currency, the largest share was deposits in national currency fund, which ranged from 20 to 45% and time deposits about 60%.
Despite the positive growth of deposits in JSC «Oschadbank», improvement and further development requires a deposit management, as one of the main components of bank management. Deposit management system is a continuous process of improvement and involvement of management in the required amount, with the further spending on active operations on favorable terms for the bank, to the extent and in the manner prescribed by applicable law.
Deposit management bank is one of the main ways of increasing the efficiency of management involvement deposit resources, since the bank is an integral part of the financial management. Deposit management system has some feature, most important of which, in our opinion, are dynamism, adaptability and realism. Most importantly, dynamism and adaptability of the bank management should include its implementation in the long run, as far as it is impossible to realize all the points within the shortest time. In addition, it should include the immediate response to ongoing changes in the internal and external environment. Moreover, feasibility study category indicates that its formation should be based only on realistic performance experience for further practical implementation and achievement of objectives.
Above all, there is a pressing need to ensure a balance between existing banking products and introducing new ones with intention of increasing the efficiency of attracting deposits. In the first place, the deposit programms that are increasing in popularity and providing a significant increase in deposit resources should be identified. Moreover, it is necessary to maintain its function and work on improvement, for example, introducing additional bonuses or offering a gradual increase in interest rates on deposits – 0.5-1% per year. The example of such a deposit in JSC «Oschadbank» was «Deposit» in which revenues accounted for the largest share in the structure of all raised resources, however, at present time such banking product are not offered. Due to this fact, JSC «Oschadbank» needs to develop a new deposit program, for example, for such category of customers as students. One of the examples of such an innovation can be special escrow account, with the help of what each month students can get bonus and have an opportunity to use them for purchases or other services. Although, JSC «Oschadbank» already has a special offer for such category as pensioners, there is a great need to develop them by gradually increasing interest rates or offering additional services and bonuses. Taking into account all above mention, there would be reasonable to offer QFD (Quality Function Deployment) for JSC «Oschadbank». The functioning of this system in the bank will provide continuous control over the changing needs and desires of customers and will develop new products and services to their needs.
According to the analysis of the banking system in 2014, PJSC CB «PRIVATBANK» has become a leader in attracting customer deposits, while the object of our study occupied the second position. In this case, it is necessary to conduct benchmarking, not only as a one-time action, but establish a continuous process of comparing its products and services with the competitor’s ones. For this purpose, there is a need to introduce ABC (Activity Based Costing) and TBC (Time based Competition) system, where ABC helps to control costs of deposit products, identify those that provide a significant increase in deposit resources and eliminate products which do not bring added value to the client. On the other hand, TBC (Time based Competition), a system of evaluation «temporary competition», will help to coordinate the activities of the bank on the market in time. Analyzing direct competitors, such indicators as an individual deposit service, the popularity of the brand, the opportunity to expand deposit services, efficiency of various types of deposits and flexible marketing policy should be taken into consideration.
One of the aims of benchmarking is to determine the competitiveness of the banking product that allow to estimate the ratio of its quality and cost performance compared to competitors’ products that will help to determine the actual level of competitiveness. The set of criteria such as core banking product price, breadth and depth of range, line structures range requirements of consumers, service time, availability of discounts and many others should be defined. This approach enables to determine the actual level of competitive banking products, on the base of what recommendations for its improvement will be developed. Thus, while using the deposit benchmarking activities, JSC «Oschadbank» will have an opportunity to identify strengths and weaknesses of its deposit policy compared with leading banks or competitors’ and react to changing internal and external environment accordingly.
Furthermore, a continuous monitoring of rational and purposeful resource involvement can play a starring role in improving bank deposit policy. In this case, deposit resource management tools are an integral part, including analysis and planning which provide the research of «behavior» of clients’ accounts, the choice of strategy in the market deposit services, work to attract customers and control. In addition, continuous monitoring of the funds in customer accounts, especially of the deposit outflows of resources, indicates the problem in the deposit of the bank that enable to improve alternative strategy involving funds on current and deposit accounts. Refer to the fact that in 2014 there was an increase of deposits in JSC «Oschadbank»., it is a great need of the development for raising funds. Taking everything into consideration, several measured are offered:
- develop an effective marketing system in order to provide special financial incentives, differentiation of which according to the importance of the customer to the bank;
- rely on a continuous basis of the expected value of a solid balance mechanisms of its formation and possible variations in time;
- ensure partnership collaboration with the largest possible number of customers for more accurate plan banking institution and the movement of funds in their accounts.
It is a common practice that special methods, connected with changes in the level of deposit rates, are used in order to attract the customer, for instance, concerning regular or elite clients. Unfortunately, there are no such programms in JSC «Oschadbank». So, one of the ways of JSC «Oschadbank» development can be the use of price management by involving customer funds. Considering the practice of using the non-price methods by other banks, it should be noted that it is necessary to improve the marketing strategy of JSC «Oschadbank», form a comprehensive services and improve customer service. Despite the fact that some extras cannot be connected with the main supply, its implementation will enhance the inflow of clients. The ensuring of low turnover in the accounts, especially for large customers, will enable to create customized packages that meet customer needs to full extend. Moreover, the increase of customer interest in long-term investments can be reached through the development of long-term products and the development of flexible accounts can provide the possibility of replenishment, withdrawal of contributions and interest payments on their request.
Apart from this, there is desperate need to use CRM technology for attracting and retaining customers. CRM is system of customer relationship management which is aimed at improving knowledge about customers and effective use of this information. Beside this, CRM technology can be used for predicting changes in the customer base and customer segmentation.
In contemporary economies, one of the most popular qualitative methods of detection and risk assessment of competitive advantages of other banks is SWOT- analysis, with the help of which strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats of commercial bank are determined. Thus, SWOT- analysis gives an opportunity to summarize the available information, determine competitive advantages and disadvantages and define strategy development based on the circumstances prevailing in the external and internal environment of the bank.
Conclusions. The main role in enhancing the effectiveness of fundraising from deposit sources in JSC «Oschadbank» plays deposit management bank, which is aimed at providing stable growth of deposits, attracting new customers, maintaining existing client base, improving the range of products and services and others. In order to achieve these goals, benchmarking should be conducted on a regular basis that will help to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the banking product compared with competitors. In addition, improvement should be made both in price control methods with the involvement of customer funds and marketing for improving the quality of customer service. It is also necessary to introduce ABC, TBC and CRM systems that will ensure cost control over the deposit products, evaluation of competitive banking products and improving relationships with customers. Consequently, the implementation of all these techniques will provide additional attracting of deposit resources.
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