The article analyzes the problems of man and artist in dramatic poem «Nightingale-Solveig» and researches tools and techniques used by the author to the story.
Key words: dramatic poem, man, artist, genre, plot, character.
The dramatic poem «The Nightingale-Solveig» was a new phenomenon in the Ukrainian drama 1970-1980 years by originality in the formulation of problems, ideological sound. You can also add originality characters, their destinies plexus and poetics of a work that allows these contents phenomena. As an artist Ivan Drach is trying to understand the profound conflict of a woman’s heart, where raging artistic outlook reviews feminism, lyricism and virility, desire to fulfill the holy mission of the mother and not to betray vocation. The author tries to convey the whole range torments of the human soul, turning to images of literature.
The realization that the great epic works should enhance analytical thought that was affected at dramatic poem «The Nightingale-Solveig», is filled with cascades of questions about the nature of art and life, the vocation of talent, the moral adequacy of creative personality. The main character Marina Turchin, while being in the multifaceted life and career situations with complex, there is simultaneously the bearer of opposing characters, opposite’s good and evil, dedication and narcissism. It rejects demands humble service to society and then shares its ethical standards. Hence – the conflict of the artist and the community which can be resolved due to the instinct to survive extent. Strong character can run its course until the end, which is death. He is mentally so strong that the end of wholeness is death. He can reach his goal – and then triumphants, or as in the art (with no end) it is to the rest of their forces, and going down into the grave, is leaving his soul into materialized objects to their descendants. Talent is the God’s gift and at the same time is a punishment. For realizing it we have to give up many pleasures of earthly existence, which enjoy ordinary people. Realized talent can bring glory and immortality to man, the same process of talent realization often requires renunciation of all worldly goods.
Once Michael Turchin was fashioned Nymph from twenty years Marina. Nymph – is dreaminess and volatility, youth in their arms, in her heart lives immortal eternity, she loves with no regretting, and throws into the maelstrom with head, even death will be payback for this. This Nymph was living with Marina and always wished to awaking, was waiting for her Lukash. She persistently sought him among men feminist era. Rock woman wants alive, not rock love, because in fact fought stone fragile soul, the eternal is waiting for Solveig holy life. And in each of her men she was looking for herself, coalescing with which, she fells the expected long harmony. Marina was living with stone dreams, creativity. All her life «tooks the batch», because those sculptures were placed in a global spirit of humanity. These were her stone soul children, who were living in her, which she lived, they were fragment of her «I», in which eyes she was able to look at the world. How many yet are unborn, forgotten, promised that are broken, torn into the world, do not give sleepless nights to sleep, saying: «Born us! Born!» (1, p. 400) – is waiting for their apparition. The most in Marina’s workshop are mothers: «Vietnam Mother», «Ballerina Mother», «Shahtarka Mother», «Foremother all things», «Future Mother», «Mother of astronaut», «Mother Young guard» and Turchin’s gold – his award for «Mother of peace» – a woman with a giant belly and dove in pilot. Only a woman with soul artist – creator can fully understand the mystery of birth, when in the throes is given life that remains after you, and you become a link that unites the world with boundless nothingness, when the ocean of ideas, transcendental principles, entities – is something holistic and a living. It comes into the world that someone will open for you and will see it differently. Marina harbored ideas of her creations, like babies. All the physical and mental strength she gave them. She gave birth not only their ideas, but Michael, missed through her. Recently she officered with hammer, chisel and rasp, extracting stone forms. «Is it woman’s work?» (1, p. 409), – close and familiar people asked repeatedly. Not just secretly Marina asked this herself, and she wanted a simple female happiness as a «Khimka, Thecla, Nina or Nastya»:
It is the Nymph’s hand that I spilled
Two rhizomes, whinisical patterns,
Broke the body to the edge,
I want a son so much that I die, Nymph…
Oh, God, I was working for twenty years,
With hammer beat in the crown chisels,
Bent, broke, drilled and scrubbed,
And asps my youth vents and vents…
Where did my wash waist escape?!
I want a son! I wish a son (3, p. 457).
Philosophical anthropology focuses on the personal qualities of man as a social, historical, psychological phenomenon.
The real struggle is in the Marina’s soul. Here Ivan Drach raised profound philosophical and moral, social problem that excites artists: how to combine the human person and the means and purpose, how to make a man heading for the objective high end, comprehended, however, their individual dream that she realized the most creative and human potential opportunities.
This conflict in dramatic poem by Ivan Drach is expressed in Marina’s passionate monologue-confession, especially in the «intermezzo moon» – the night race heroine with «strange creatures» – the creative dreams that are waiting for his birth, Marina faces with the dilemma of burning life: creativity of personal happiness. «The chorus of strange creatures» – the creative miracles, «delirium-tired», «unborn children» are asking the world and life:
For you, for you we are waiting for years!
You studied for twenty years – you are forty.
All whims, all aversion in February under cock
Take and drive – let rages over gin.
All doubts – away, all confusion – by knee!
You – you must, you have to, and you are surely punished,
You – breed our defensed souls,
You have to nurse us… (1, p. 283).
Marina wants to «light up in the world mother», to give not stones, but human life, finally, even in forty years to stay weak until the end of feminine beloved, seeks simple human happiness. She looks with envy, as Peter is carrying Natasha, but then ironically: «What does he hear in his chicken flight? Flight of private property man?» (2, p. 132). There is a long-standing problem of the struggle between the desire for human happiness and vocation. As a scholar of Ivan Drach M. Ilnytskyi believes: «The conflict between these two principles in Marina’s nature is carried out with particular acuteness and internal consistency. Two voices in her soul sound not quiet, trying to muffle the second one, but without success» [4, p. 131].
Michael with some strange magnetism attracted the people, especially women, with eternal unsolved mystery that attracted to him, he was for Marina, who understood his creative soul as her own. His «believer» was also Oksana. He broke her life… And her daughter, who now is playing on his violin, she calls Solveig and it is no coincidence: «The word is our prisoner in mouth, not taking root» (2, p. 181), so brothers and father called her Nightingale. This little innocent hurt for the sins of the parents girl is that Nightingale-Solveig, echoing confusion of broken love, the pain, sadness treachery oracle… Violin, in which Solya played – is incomprehensible music symbol, according to M. Ilnytskyi, this «music – is forever, conquers death, betrayal, physical illness, it embodies the continuity of high spiritual, towering above the commonplace his sacrifice and his suffering» [4, p. 154]. Perhaps the music of violin is pure, sacred, immortal melody and Ibsen’s, Hrihovoyi Solveig’s song. Thus, the fate of Marina Turchin – is a vivid illustration of the internal conflict of the human «I». And, as A. Tkachenko notes, the biggest paradox, perhaps, because «no matter how desperately Marina behaved, it is not given to know this long-awaited simple woman’s happiness» [7, p. 189], because its foundation – is an art which she lived for so many years, without which it would not be Marina.
Expressions of protagonist as an artist touches and internal conflict that varies in «Lunar intermezzo» – is a kind of intermission in the work. After protagonist raving the author shows the entire volume and variety of creative intention remarkable woman. The author deliberately selects various epithets to emphasize the inclusiveness of creative ideas that still remains to Marina.
Heroes who make a chorus, have very specific names «One that dam breaks», «Who sits in the rock», «Water grandfather» who resonates with the characters of the drama extravaganza by Lesya Ukrainka «Forest Song» underscore the importance of his artistic incarnation, perpetuation. According to researcher M. Kudryavtsev, «there is no well-defined story line». Human nature, fate did not appear in the direct actions or direct sequence. They appear through flashbacks, monologues, moral confession characters in difficult situations, relationships, served in a rather interesting, unusual in its interweaving of exclusivity, in a kind of psychological measurement. The drama is no characteristic of these genre elements – exhibition, conflict, ties, and development of action, climax, and denouement. The characters are different gender, age, profession, preferences. Each of them is a rich inner world.
The desire for personal happiness and the higher spiritual calling is particularly acute in the face of the modern woman and is in constant confrontation. Ivan Drach could not avoid this theme. Look how author remembers about the idea of writing a poem: «What did prompt me to write it? In a television program advocated a woman – doctor, professor, and head of the scientific team. It has the authority, fame, her appreciate the scientific community in our country and abroad, and then she suddenly started talking about organic desire of every woman ordinary, simple female happiness, a desire to have a family» [2, p. 155]. As an artist, Ivan Drach is trying to understand the profound conflict of a woman’s heart, where the raging artistic outlook reviews feminism, lyricism and virility, desire to fulfill the holy mission of the mother and not to betray vocation. The author tries to convey the whole range torments of the human soul, turning to woman’s images of literature.
According to A. Tkachenko, we are witnessing a «dualistic opposition between «life» and «creativity», «earth» and «heaven», «body» and «soul». And the fact that she as an artist is well aware of this intelligence makes it no less dramatic, not dulls the sharpness famous in the days of Classicist tragedy of conflict and a sense of duty» [7, p. 202]. Marina wants to «light up in the word mother», not giving stones, but human life, finally, even in forty years to stay weak until the end of feminine beloved, seeks simple human happiness. All life she had to be strong, to bear the brunt of everything, and now she wants someone to raise her strong, manly hands, and took as something fragile, expensive and delicate. She looks with envy, as Peter is carrying Natasha, but then ironically: «What does he hear in his chicken flight? Flight of private property man?» (2, p. 132). Some inner voice dictates: «Mission at the mercy forsakes worldly temptations and worldly bliss» (2, p. 159). There is a long-standing problem of the struggle between the desire for human happiness and vocation – is a sort faustyzm. As scholar of Ivan Drach M. Ilnytskyi believes: «The conflict between these two principles in Marina’s inner nature is carried out with particular acuteness and internal consistency. Two voices in her soul sound not quiet, and trying to muffle the second one, but without success» [4, p. 156]. You cannot serve two gods at once, you must choose: either you like everyone else, and forget their chimeras, or you – white crow – then you can fly long life that is not corrupt wing. And often it is cold in the air, I want to get warm by the someone’s fire, but you are a stranger everywhere – the world literature knows many of Faust.
Thus, the fate of Marina Turchin – is a vivid illustration of the internal conflict of the human «I». And, as A. Tkachenko noted, the biggest paradox, perhaps, is that «how desperately Marina behaved, it is not given to know this long-awaited simple woman’s happiness» [7, p. 189], because its foundation – is an art which she lived for so many years, without which it would not Marina have. Someday she will open her stone wings again and will fly away in quaint stone world. But the wings will get tired and then yearning will return for a warm nest, for marital happiness.
All in all, the author of the dramatic poem «Nightingale-Solveig» gives and reveals the important issues of humanity as a manifestation of the art of speech, focusing on finding creative personality. He modernizes, alters the nature of dramatic poem genre, in which he seamlessly combines drama, epic and lyric.
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The list of used sources
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