ІНОЗЕМНІ ІНВЕСТИЦІЇ, ЇХ ЗАЛУЧЕННЯ Й ВИКОРИСТАННЯ В УКРАЇНІ

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Залучення інвестицій нерезидентів є одним зі способів вирішення проблем держави в недостатності власних коштів, що сьогодні є дуже актуальним для України. Адже її економічний стан – критичний; через високий рівень інфляції та девальвацію національної валюти страждає велике та мале підприємництво; внаслідок ведення гібридної війни на східній території нашої держави, знищено велику кількість пріорітетних заводів та об’єктів інфраструктури; державний борг зростає, а заробітної плати населення ледве вистачає для проживання. Тому зрозумілим є те, що резиденти все менше можуть вкладати кошти в економіку власної країни. Натомість, все більшого значення для України набувають капіталовкладення іноземців.

Протягом 2011 – 2013 рр., акціонерний капітал нерезидентів в економіці України зростав. Основну частину ПІІ становили інвестиції з країн ЄС.  Темпи приросту інвестицій з інших країн світу також були позитивним, що свідчить про підвищення інвестиційної привабливості України.

Статистичні дані за січень – вересень 2014 р. показують, що обсяг ПІІ в економіці України зменшився на 9634,3 млн. дол. США. Основними проблемами, а також причинами того є:

  • непідписання наприкінці 2013 р. Угоди про асоціацію з ЄС, що спричинило зниження показника привабливості інвестиційного клімату України до 1,81 з можливих 5 балів [2];
  • слабка дієвість законодавства щодо гарантування захисту прав інвесторів та акціонерів. Саме тому, в рейтингу Глобального індексу конкурентоспроможності 2013-2014 рр., за показником захисту прав власності Україна посідає 143 місце серед 148 країн [4];
  • значний рівень податкового навантаження: в 2014 році урядом було підвищено ставки деяких податків і зборів, та переглянуто чинні податкові пільги, що обмежують можливості формування інвестиційних ресурсів;
  • неефективність внутрішнього ринку, якому притаманна монополізація важливих секторів, нерозвиненість інфраструктури та тінізація торгівлі.

Також, зважаючи на те, що комерційні банки забезпечували хоч і не велику, але частину інвестицій шляхом кредитування, вагомий вплив на проведення інвестиційної діяльності сьогодні має відтік капіталів з банків, а також підвищення рівня відсоткової ставки за кредитами, які можна назвати «недоступними».

Проте, незважаючи на вищезазначені проблеми, українська економіка ще залишається досить привабливою. Основними країнами-інвесторами є: Кіпр, Німеччина, Нідерланди, Російська Федерація, Австрія, та Велика Британія.

Кіпр – найбільший інвестор в українську економіку. Частка його інвестицій в загальній структурі, у порівнянні з іншими країнами, більша в 3-5 разів, та зростає з кожним роком. І таке інвестування не є випадковістю, адже Кіпр раніше був класичною офшорною зоною, а зараз має найнижчу ставку податку на прибуток у Європі – 10%, та нульову ставку податку на будь-які пасивні доходи. Саме тому, всі ці так звані інвестиції можна вважати своєрідним відмиванням коштів українськими можновладцями, які потім знову ж таки повертаються в Україну, але вже як іноземні інвестиції зі значно меншим податковим навантаженням.

Переважна частина ПІІ в Україні, спрямовується в промисловість та фінансову діяльність (29-33 % загальних інвестицій). Найменше іноземці інвестують в державне управління, освіту, охорону здоров’я і надання соціальних послуг. Причинами цього є обмеження з боку українського уряду для нерезидентів щодо  інвестування в окремі галузі, зокрема в державне управління, а разом з тим, – їх низька рентабельність та високий термін окупності. В свою чергу, промисловість, має найвищу рентабельність, і тому, є найбільш привабливою для іноземних інвесторів. В дану галузь вкладають кошти переважно нерезиденти з країн Німеччини (32,6 %), Кіпру (23,5 %), та Нідерландів (13,0 %). Варто звернути увагу й на те, що ці країни вкладають кошти саме в переробну промисловість, й існує велика ймовірність того, що продукція, отримана внаслідок переробки на українських підприємствах забирається цими інвесторами на власні заводи.

Отже, українська економіка залучає інвестиції нерезидентів, але використовує їх досить нераціонально. Уряду нашої держави варто покращувати умови інвестиційної діяльності задля фінансування галузей діяльності, які допоможуть зайняти конкурентну нішу на ринку. Зважаючи на теперішній стан економіки України, найбільш перспективними для інвестування є військова діяльність, інноваційні розробки та будівництво, які в найближчий період і будуть пріоритетними.

 

 

Література:

  1. Статистичний бюлетень: Інвестиції зовнішньоекономічної діяльності України за 2014 рік / Державна служба статистики України [Електронний ресурс] – Режим доступу: http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua.
  2. Що думає бізнес: результати Індексу інвестиційної привабливості України у 4 кварталі 2013 року [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.eba.com.ua/uk/information-support/eba-news/important/item/10192-2013-12-19-1420.
  3. Щодо ризиків і перспектив активізації інвестиційної діяльності в Україні: аналітична записка [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.niss.gov.ua/articles/1550.
  4. The Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014 – Geneva: World Economic Forum, 2013. – P. 377 [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: weforum.org/gcr.
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