Особливості білл-бордової політичної реклами у виборчому процесі на сучасному етапі

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На сьогодні виборчий процес неможливо уявити без використання передвиборчої агітації, яка, в свою чергу, включає в себе використання різних видів політичної реклами. Одним із видів політичної реклами є білл-бордова реклама. На сучасному етапі вона займає одне із головних засобів впливу на масову свідомість, адже вона є досить швидким та ефективним засобом донесення рекламного повідомлення до виборця.

Білл-бордова політична реклама – вид політичної реклами, який містить в собі інформацію про кандидата чи політичну партію та входить до передвиборчої агітації.
Науковці С. Моріарті, У. Уеллс та Дж. Бернет у своїй книзі «Реклама: принципи і практика» визначають такі основні елементи зовнішньої реклами:
– концепція. На їхню думку, в основі реклами лежить певна концепція, яка повинна бути одразу зрозумілою;
– текст. Науковці говорять, що текст у зовнішній рекламі повинен бути коротким, стислим;
– дизайн. Автори праці наголошують, що поєднання зображення із заголовком є вирішальним фактором в подальшій концепції рекламного щита.
– шрифт. Потрібно використовувати простий, чіткий шрифт, тому що візерункові букви, так як і рукописний шрифт і курсив важко сприймається для аудиторії [3].
На їхню думку, важливим чинником є видимість білборда. За допомогою видимості інформація на щиті відразу впадає в очі пересічній людині. Значний вплив реклами формує колір. Автори говорять, що великий роль в кольорі відіграє контраст між двома кольорами. Великий контраст формує поєднання між темними кольорами і білим або жовтим.
Білборд є дуже популярним видом політичної реклами, тому, що його розміри дозволяють забезпечити добру видимість з великої відстані. Для того, щоб білл-бордова реклама мала позитивний результат, потрібно дотримуватися ряд вимог до оформлення білборда. Насамперед, це вимоги до тексту. У багатьох випадках саме текст розкриває ідею та сутність політичного звернення до виборця. Тому він повинен бути інформативним, зрозумілим і разом з тим лаконічним. У тексті зовнішньої реклами не повинно бути жодного зайвого слова. Краще всього, повинна бути виражена однією фразою, що складається з трьох, максимум п’яти коротких слів. Неприпустимі в тексті і професійні терміни, зрозумілі тільки фахівцям.
Людина сприймає зовнішню рекламу найчастіше на ходу, пересуваючись вулицями міста пішки або на транспорті. А це означає, що у пішохода, і особливо у пасажира час для прочитання тексту обмежено лише декількома секундами. Довжина тексту в зовнішній рекламі залежить від конструкції, розмірів і особливостей самого носія реклами (засоби), від місця його розташування. Так, на плакаті великого розміру, розташованому на рівні очей пішохода, текст може бути значно довшим, ніж на такому ж плакаті, що висить високо і розрахованому на пасажирів транспорту. Вплив реклами також залежить від накреслення і розміру шрифту, який використаний для його написання, і від інтервалу між буквами. Шрифт повинен бути великим, простим по зображенню, легко помітним з великої відстані. Кольори букв і фону мають бути контрастними. Легко читаються, наприклад, чорні букви на жовтому фоні, червоні на білому або темно сині літери на блідо блакитному [1].
В передвиборній агітації 2014 року багато кандидатів використовували жовто-синю гамму, асоціюючи її з національними кольорами, оскільки за останні півроку патріотичний дух українців зріс у кілька разів. Крім того слід звернути увагу, що крім кольору одним з вагомих елементів на білбордах було зображення кандидата. Іміджмейкери і політтехнологи знають, що на виборця впливає вигляд і погляд кандидата [2].
Усі ці вимоги щодо оформлення білбордів можна було спостерігати на дострокових виборах до ВРУ 2014 року. Візуальній політичній рекламі цих виборів були притаманні помітний бренд, короткий слоган, обличчя на білому фоні – такою є політична реклама в Європі, такою вона стала і в Україні [2].
Потрібно вважати що білл-бордовою рекламою неможливо охопити чітко визначену аудиторію виборців. Оскільки, контакт зовнішньої реклами та виборця є дуже коротким, тому що люди бачать її під час руху. Через велику кількість реклами суспільство часто не реагують на рекламні щити. Ці фактори також потрібно брати до уваги перед створенням політичного білборда.
Отож, білл-бордова політична реклама має певний вплив на думку виборців. Завданням іміджмейкерів або політ технологів є створити такий політичний білборд, щоб реклама була ефективною і дієвою під час проведення виборчої кампанії.

СПИСОК ВИКОРИСТАНИХ ДЖЕРЕЛ

1. Наружная реклама [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступа : http://reklama.web-3.ru/types/narujka/. – Название с экрана.
2. Парламентські вибори 2014: аналіз білбордів [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://vgolos.com.ua/articles/parlamentski_vybory_2014_analiz_bilbordiv_158019.html – Назва з екрану.
3. Уэллс, У. Реклама: принципы и практика: [Текст] / У. Уэллс, Дж. Бернет, С. Мориарти; пер. с англ. – СПб.: Питер, 1999. – 736 с. – (Теория и практика менеджмента).

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