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УДК 811.111’373.43

O.V. Yasinska

Lesуa Ukrainka Eastern European National University (Lutsk city)



        The article deals with the research of analysis of quasisynonymic group of cyberset SYSTEM BURGLAR (hacker, cracker, phreaker). Attention has been devoted to the analysis of the above mentioned computer neologisms definitions and the comparison of their lexico-semantic variants. Slots of objected and actional frames have been constructed in the given cyberset. The table of similarity and difference of slots parameters of the computer neologisms hacker, cracker and phreaker make up the cyberset SYSTEM BURGLAR has also been presented. Slots with the exact and non-exact synonymy have been defined. It has also been described and studied  the phenomenon of quasisynonymy in the given cyberset. The dominant of the given cyberset has been identified and it can substitute any of the computer neologisms in the wide linguistic context.

      Key words: cyberset, computer neologism, lexico-semantic variant (LSV), frame, slot.


 Концептуально-фреймовий аналіз квазісинонімічного ряду кіберсету  ПОРУШНИК СИСТЕМИ (SYSTEM BURGLAR).

 У статті висвітлено дослідження аналізу квазісинонімічного ряду кіберсету ПОРУШНИК СИСТЕМИ (hacker, cracker, phreaker). Звернуто увагу на аналіз значення зазначених компютерних неологізмів та порівнювання їх лексико-семантичних варіантів (ЛСВ). Сконструйовано слоти предметного та акціонального фреймів в межах даного кіберсету. Представлено таблицю кількісних параметрів слотової подібності та розбіжності комп’ютерних неологізмів hacker, cracker та phreaker, які входять до складу кіберсету ПОРУШНИК СИСТЕМИ. Визначено слоти у яких виявляється точна та неточна синонімія. Окреслено та досліджено явище квазісинонімії в межах представленого кіберсету. Визначено домінанту цього кіберсету, яка може замінити будь-який із компютерних неологізмів у широкому лінгвістичному контексті.


 Ключові слова: кіберсет, комп’ютерний неологізм, лексико-семантичнйи варіант (ЛСВ), фрейм, слот.


 Концептуально-фреймовый анализ квазисинонимического ряда киберсета НАРУШИТЕЛЬ СИСТЕМЫ (SYSTEM BURGLAR). В статье рассмотрено исследование анализа квазисинонимического ряда киберсета НАРУШИТЕЛЬ СИСТЕМЫ (hacker, cracker, phreaker). Обращено внимание на анализ значений отмеченных компьютерных неологизмов и сравнение их лексико-семантических вариантов (ЛСВ). Сконструировано слоты предметного и акционального фреймов в пределах этого киберсета. Представлена таблица количественных параметров слотового сходства и расхождения компьютерных неологизмов hacker, cracker и phreaker, которые входят в состав киберсета НАРУШИТЕЛЬ СИСТЕМЫ. Определено слоты в которых оказывается точная и неточная синонимия. Очерчено и исследовано явление квазисинонимии в пределах представленного киберсета. Определена доминанта этого киберсета, которая может заменить любой из компьютерных неологизмов в широком лингвистическом контексте.


  Statement of the problem and its significance. Topicality of the article is determined by the fact that there is high frequency of the given quasisynonymic row members usage in the world community computer processes and its insufficient linguistic study. As far as the computer neologisms, which are the key elements of the cyberset SYSTEM BURGLAR (hacker, cracker, phreaker) find the significant reflection in computer neology, appear the necessity to analyze them in objected and actional frame models what they form.

The objective of the given article is to present conceptual and frame analysis of the given cyberset quasisynonyms. The objective involves the following tasks: to determine and to research the ways of the quasisynonymic relations formation in the cyberset SYSTEM BURGLAR; to consider the following types of frames: objected and actional; to define the parameters of similarity and difference of the analyzed computer neologisms.

  The presentation of the basic material and reasoning of the study results. Synonyms are one of the main indexes of language wealth, which provide the exactness of idea utterance, language variety [3, p. 209].

There are two ways of synonyms determination: semantic and operation semantic. According to the first approach synonyms are determined as words which have the identical lexical value and differ only in their hints. The essence of operation semantic approach consists of an attempt to connect the ordinary picture of words which can differ from each other. This scientific approach has caused neutralization conception of semantic difference of synonyms in strictly defined positions determined by semantic, functional, lexical and other characteristics

[1, p. 216-217].

According to the criterion of degree of closeness of synonyms value are classified into complete and incomplete [3, p. 207] or exact and quasisynonyms (inexact) [1, p. 218], whether absolute and relative [5].

It is also possible to suppose that for our frame conception quasisynonymy

(lat. quasi – almost, as if synonymy) is one of the basic paradigm relations in the lexico-semantic system is hierarchical organization of elements, which are based on gender and forms relations [9]. It is also possible to consider quasisynonyms as separated slots (fragments of frames) which are thrown about the controlled from distance synonyms for the different valued tints. Quasisynonyms are classified into  quantitative, high-qualitative or functional characteristics. Among the quasisynonymic row always there is a dominant synonym.

We examine this cyberset by using first of all the method of conceptual analysis and also by the statistic method, comparative method, method of dictionary definitions and introspection which is the basic method of penetration into deep essence of the researched material.

Designing the cyberset SYSTEM BURGLAR as the objected and actional frames, it should be taken into consideration that the objected type of frame model of the given cyberset is the system of interrelated suggestions, where the central logical subject is SOMETHING-subject, which is predicted by the quantitative, qualitative, living actional, locative and temporal characteristics:



This model takes part in the construction of the conceptual structures of those mental appearances, which include a few subjected essences [2, p. 17; 4 p. 62; 5].

On the material of five explanatory dictionaries of different branches of science, in particular, philosophical, psychological, English-Ukrainian explanatory dictionary in the computing engineering of Internet and programming cyberset SYSTEM BURGLAR [6; 7; 8; 9; 10] is possible to present five slots of the objected frame of the given cyberset: [SUCH (quality)], [SOMEBODY (object)], [OPERATES WITH PURPOSE (activity)], [METOD/WAY], [HERE (place)].

To fulfill the slot [SUCH] we select such LSV: experienced; educated; abusive.

Slot [SOMEBODY] is correlated with such computer neologisms: burglar; hacker; cracker; phreaker.

LSV that fulfill the slot [OPERATES WITH PURPOSE] are such as: achieving; illegal penetration; cracking programs, computers.

LSV, that fulfill the slot [METHOD/WAY] are such as: non-standard goals; access goals; access control; telephone networks.

To fulfill the slot [HERE] we select the given LSV: computer systems; telephone.

The description of illustrative material allows to model cyberset SYSTEM BURGLAR in objected frame, presented in the table 1.

In this type of frame in cyberset SYSTEM BURGLAR for the quasisynonyms hacker, cracker and phreaker common are the slots [SUCH], as far as these neologisms have common LSV: educated, experienced, abusive and [OPERATES WITH PURPOSE]: illegal penetration. Inexact synonymy is shown in the slots [HERE]. In slot [SOMEBODY] the specific name of burglar is presented, they are: hacker, person, *cracker, *phreaker. In slot [HERE] hacker and cracker have the same place – computer systems, but phreaker includes LSV: *telephone. Quasisynonymy is observed in slot [METHOD/WAY], as far as each of the given quasisynonyms has its own method/way of realization: by non-standard goals, *access control, *telephone networks.

The structure of the actional frame consists of five slots:


LSV correlating with slot [SOMEBODY]: burglar.

Slot [OPERATES WITH PURPOSE] relatively correlates with characteristic decoding information: penetration in foreign programs and computer.

LSV, that fulfill slot [METHOD/WAY] is: illegally.

To fulfill slot [HERE] we highlight such LSV: computer systems; telephone.

Slot [SOMETHING (result)] relatively correlates with characteristic: hacking.

This model is presented in the picture 1.

The qualitative analysis of identity and difference in the slots of the researched computer neologisms (hacker, cracker, phreaker) are presented in Table 2.

This type of analysis allows us to draw the conclusion that computer neologisms hacker, cracker and phreaker fully coincide in slot parameters [SUCH] and [OPERATES WITH PURPOSE]. Partial synonymy was revealed in slots [SOMEBODY] and [HERE]. Quasisynonymy is presented in slot [METHOD/WAY].

The dominant of the given cyberset is computer neologism HACKER, because it can substitute any of quasisynonyms in a wider linguistic context.

Conclusions. The analysis of the dictionary definitions is the important stage of research of cyberset SYSTEM BURGLAR and in the nearest future it can serve as the basis for experimental research of functioning peculiarities of conceptual and frame arrangement of other computer neologisms in the mental lexicon of the personality. The results received in this research do not exhaust the range of questions dealing with the computer neologisms researching, but create perspectives for comparison of structure analysis results of all computer dictionaries and deep analysis of computer neologisms interaction within conceptual and frame models frameworks.



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