Поділитися Share on Facebook0Tweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+0Share on LinkedIn0Share on Reddit0Pin on Pinterest0Print this page

УДК 81.37:811.11(045)

                                                                                                           Chugu S.D.

Vinnytsia Institute of Trade and Economics of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics, Vinnytsia


The study of semantic and functional differences between temporal expressions and temporal markers of different levels proves their various characteristics in the textual continuum.  The research of the functions of temporal markers on the text level provides evidence of their importance for temporal cohesion, indexing and temporal framing of textual situations and events. The author analyzes semantic, compositional, and functional features of temporal markers to reveal their role in creating temporality of the text.

Key words: text temporality, textual function, temporal expression, temporal marker, textual continuum.

Вивчення семантичних і функційних відмінностей виразів з темпоральною семантикою та темпоральних маркерів різних рівнів доводить, що вони виконують у текстовій площині різні ролі. Результати дослідження функцій темпоральних маркерів рівня тексту підтверджують їх важливість для створення темпоральної когезії, індексування та оформлення текстових подій і ситуацій. Авторка аналізує семантичні, композиційні та функційні  особливості темпоральних маркерів для розкриття їх ролі у створенні темпоральності тексту.

Ключові слова: темпоральність тексту, текстова функція, темпоральний чинник, темпоральний маркер, площина тексту.

Изучение семантических и функциональных различий выражений темпоральной семантики и темпоральных маркеров  разных уровней  доказывает, что они выполняют в текстовом пространстве разные роли. Результаты исследования функций темпоральных маркеров текстового уровня подтверждают их важность для создания темпоральной когезии, индексации и оформления текстовых событий и ситуаций. Автор анализирует семантические, композиционные и функциональные особенности темпоральных маркеров для установления их роли в создании темпоральности текста.

Ключевые слова: темпоральность текста, текстовая функция, темпоральный показатель, темпоральный маркер, текстовое пространство.

Introduction. New developments in the fields of discourse studies and cognitive science resulted in the changes in the theoretical considerations within the framework of narrative analysis that shifted from traditional formal-structural to socio-cognitive perspective.

The new approach based on the implementation of integrated research of semantic, functional, cognitive and compositional characteristics of linguistic means in discourse and literary text outlines the topicality of the study that aims at  deepening the understanding of meanings and functions of language devices of temporal semantics in the narrative.

The fiction model of reality is created in the narrative in accordance with the world model each language community deals with as the result of cognition of the world.  Time and space as basic forms of existence of matter are obligatory essential parameters, present in the literary text continuum in the form of temporality and spatiality. Temporal expressions that function on the two major levels of the narrative (propositional and textual) demonstrate their features to the full in the text continuum.

Discussion. The study of the functions of temporal expressions reveals their vital role for indexing and coordinating text events and situations, in addition to their overall significance in creating text temporality through the use of a number of lexical units that convey temporal meanings. In the narrative that is characterized structurally as a linear arrangement of actions, situations, and events, situational events are commonly ordered in a temporal sequence and such sequences are expressed both explicitly and implicitly with the help of numerous temporal markers of different levels as well as combinations of temporal markers. As the narration does not necessarily develop chronologically in a linear order, situations and events in the literary text are represented in different ways, their temporal characteristics being revealed through a system of various linguistic devices: grammatical, lexical, and lexico-grammatical.

As to grammatical devices proper, in discourse studies tense is viewed as a temporal feature that locates an event occurrence in the past, present, or future and is usually oriented at a referential point that often coincides with the time of utterance/ narration.

Focus of grammar studies of tense forms is mostly on the differentiation of the notional category of temporality and the grammatical time proper (grammatical temporality). Languages were formerly believed to represent time through an elaborate system of grammatical tenses that can reflect real time in the actual speech time, when the departing point coincides with the very moment of speech or the moment of immediate perception. Besides, grammatical tenses express relative time in case when the departing point does not coincide with the moment of speech [2, 6, 7].

The event structure, conveyed commonly by lexical means, is processed in accordance with the temporal and contingency relations relative to the main event (or the initial one in a succession of events / situations / actions). This information is also derived from general world knowledge that is associated with the event or situation presented in the narrative. Functions of temporal expressions of various levels and structures are different: subordinating conjuncts are usually viewed as explicit expression means of ordering, while sequential occurrences of tense verb forms are believed to express coordinated event structures. As syntactic information and tense morphology are not specific enough to provide proper interpretation of temporal features of situations, the background of events world knowledge and lexical meanings are of special importance in the narrative.

Recent studies of linguistic means of temporal semantics in the language resulted in the convincing evidence of their complex functions in the temporal continuum of the narrative. It includes the spheres of anteriority, simultaneity and posteriority [3] as well as various overlapped aspects.

Studies of the ways to represent events and situations in narratives resulted in the fruitful framework of situation models, multidimensional ones in particular, that prove effective for language comprehension due to numerous theoretical and methodological developments which led to a deeper understanding of mental representations of events and the explication of the role of language devices in their verbalization [1, 10].

New approaches to the study of the text necessitate regarding textual events and situations in terms of framing and perspectivizing as these are significantly prevalent in discourse and text [12, 9]. Traditionally time is viewed mainly in terms of three distinct spheres of past, present and future, events and situations being regarded as ‘located’ on the temporal axis. The division between the spheres is connected with the moment of speech, which is not stable, as it constantly shifts (moves) in time, changing its place on the temporal axis. Moreover, the moment of speech serves a kind of borderline between the past and the future. Still narrative organization is characterized by temporal coherence, though so far linguistic research focused on text (discourse) markers whereas temporal markers need further study to reveal their semantic, pragmatic and syntactic features in the literary text to the full.

The cognitive function of temporal expressions in the narrative is to activate knowledge structures that help process and interpret situations and events correctly and consequently to maintain the ‘eventuality’ flow adequately [13].

Time in the narrative is an essential parameter of the model of the world created in accordance with the rules and laws similar to those of the real world, so the way they are perceived and processed by the human mind are the result of the collective cognitive experiences. Duran N.D., Mccarthy P.M., Gaesser A.C., Mcnamara D.S. [4] designed the framework in which three measures are considered to be motivated by a situational model that outlines a process by which readers make use of linguistic features, as well as background knowledge, to link incoming events to their shared event structures in working memory.  Readers construct a situation model by indexing the shared links between events as they encounter them in a text. With respect to time, shared information is based on three major processing cues: tense, aspect, and adverbial temporal phrases. These temporal features are regarded as processing instructions on how to integrate incoming information into prior event contexts, while temporal coherence emerges as temporal information that is consistently linked throughout discourse [15].

According to Gennari S.P., the event structure, it being either a state or an event, conveyed by the lexical meaning, is immediately processed with respect to the temporal and contingencies relations relative to the main event, so event structure becomes central in sentence interpretation [5], while tense is a temporal feature that locates an event occurrence in the past, present, or future, and is usually established around a referential point, namely time of utterance [11].

The category to represent objective time is a very complicated one, so languages have a system of lingual devices of different ontological status to reflect it adequately [8, 12]. Time denotation in the language is mostly expressed via lexical, lexico-grammatical and grammatical means, temporal expressions being traditionally divided into “present-oriented” or absolutive expressions of time which distribute human time perception into the spheres of the present, past, future and non-absolutive time denotators that are not connected with the present moment, but correlate events in terms of their precedence, simultaneousness or futurity.

In the narrative time denotation of the situation /event /situational event is represented in a number of ways. The finite verb forms usually signify more generalized characteristics of the reflected processes, while the lexical means convey more detailed descriptions like in the examples they met Tom and they met Tom yesterday at 5 p.m. Such temporal expressions are regarded as temporal indices. As to their structure temporal expressions are derivations of explicit elements that include specifiers and deictics, or combine absolutes, time of day, and time periods. Due to the semantic, pragmatic and structural characteristics temporal indices reflect evaluations of temporal coherence quite accurately. In addition they are believed to generate profiles of temporal cohesion corresponding to human interpretations of temporal coherence via the linguistic features of temporal dimension of the situation.

Information presented in the narrative is not only lexical in nature but also derived from general world knowledge that is associated with the events described and is based on particular expectations common to the language community. The role of world knowledge and lexical meanings is particularly relevant because tense morphology and syntactic information alone are not specific enough to provide proper interpretation as overlapping, anteriority and precedence are possible temporal occurrences. Thus discourse / narrative world model should be based on the recognition of framing that is viewed as the tool for setting boundaries to define text segments [9, 14]. We would argue that temporal framing is broad enough to extend over a number of segments, at times including the whole narration, though it is more likely to be composed of separate, often chronologically ‘distorted’, sequences of events and situations.

In the excerpt I was twenty-five, pregnant and on the brink of divorce. Five years earlier, life had seemed an endless passage of open doors; now I could hear them clanging shut, one by one: marriage, job, dreams. My one pleasure was the Botanical Gardens, with its mossy paths, its tangled walkways, its quiet avenues of oaks and lindens. It became my refuge, and when David was at work (which was almost all the time) I walked there, enjoying the scent of cut grass and the play of light through the tree branches. It was surprisingly quiet; I noticed few other visitors, and was glad of it. There was one exception, however: an elderly lady in a dark coat who always sat on the same bench under the trees, sketching. In rainy weather, she brought an umbrella; on sunny days, a hat. That was Josephine Clarke; and twenty years later, with one daughter married and the other still at school, I have never forgotten her, or the story she told me of her first and only love [16: 80-81] the departing point for the narration is located in the past. It is indicated by a number of temporal markers ‘was twenty-five’, ‘five years earlier’, ‘now’, ‘in rainy weather’, ‘on sunny days’, ’always’. Tense forms ‘had seemed’, ‘became’, ‘could hear’, ‘noticed’, ‘brought’, ‘was’, ‘have forgotten’ are not dynamic, their main function is to provide a detailed characterization of the temporality of actions that occurred at different times in the past.

The analysis of the structure of the temporal plane of the passage results in identifying several temporal layers and sublayers of the past of the narrative:

anterior past                                                       five years earlier

narration time               narration point              have never forgotten

narration period            always, on sunny days

posterior past                                                     became, was

Given the specificity of meanings and functions of the temporal markers under analysis it is necessary to note that another means of indication of the departing point is significant in the example analyzed, namely the word “now”, the lexical meaning of which is that of the present moment or period. The case is the illustration of grammatical transposition, that can be either regular (stylistically neutral) or stylistically marked.

Temporal boundaries do not necessarily coincide with the boundaries in the narrative as demonstrated by ‘now I could hear’ that refers not to the time of narration but to ‘five years earlier’. Moreover, the effect of temporal violations that result in readers’ anticipations of developments of certain events indicates that narratives as works of fiction do not comply with the rigid laws of progression from the past via the present into the future that are characteristic of the real world. In the make-believe world events and situations, though located at a definite point / period, still are free to be narrated whenever required by the author’s intentions and the plot development.

The time of the narrative precedes the time of text creation which explains the relative nature of verb forms used to locate textual events and situations in the temporal dimension of the literary text. Besides, the starting point for the events in the narrative are usually placed in a certain period in the past, which becomes the exact departing moment, particular time for the narration. The distinction between real/absolutive and relative/non-absolutive time denotation is not of much importancein the narrative, due to the fact that the same verb tense-forms are used to express both absolutive and non-absolutive time, but reference with the moment of speech or/ and point of narration is relevant for the verb forms expressing dynamic character of actions as there are verb-forms that focus more on the characterization of actions but not so much on their dynamism as on the detailed description of the action in a particular temporal sphere.

The main textual function of temporal markers is to order the events in terms of their anteriority, simultaneity or posteriority. Selecting an appropriate discourse marker is complicated, as one and the same tem­poral relation is verbalized differently depending on the syntactic and lexical properties of the clauses in the text. Besides, such broad categories as tense, aspect and syn­tactic structures are realized in the textual continuum simultaneously.

The temporal aspect of the world model of a work of art, though subjective and imaginary, gives a very vivid and convincing illusion of real, true-to-life and objectivized world parameter. Temporal expressions can be further interpreted in terms of their textual functions as they are involved in the temporal orientation of events and situations, the continuity /discontinuity function, text structuring, integration of several sentences into one structure within one temporal frame.

Theoretical considerations of various dimensions in the narrative, subjectivity of individual perception and consequent ‘individualized’ interpretation alongside other variables aid adequate interpretation within the framework of social-functional and cognitive approaches. In addition, narratives are a valuable source of cognitive patterns that reflect the peculiarities of perception of time and its metaphorical representations as well as numerous conceptual projections of two and three-dimension continuum that call for further study in the context of cross-cultural connections.

Conclusion. Modern linguistic studies offer theoretically well-founded assumptions that help integrate relevant concepts and findings from other fields. Recent findings might provide more insight into general mechanisms of event comprehension in terms of their role in the realization of temporality as one of significant characteristics of discourse / text.

Semantic properties of temporal expressions in the narrative are connected with the notions of simultaneity, anteriority and posteriority that are conveyed by temporal subordinating conjunctions, lexical units, temporal prepo­sitions as well as combinations of different devices. Their semantics is usually described by the kind of the temporal relation they establish between two events: they ei­ther overlap with (simultaneity), succeed (anteri­ority), or precede (posteriority) each other. Pragmatic features of temporal markers are related to style, mostly to the values (neutral or stylistically marked). In addition, their value in­dicates the speaker’s attitude (positive, negative, neutral) towards the kind of temporal relation between events. Structural (compositional) features of temporal markers are represented by prepositional phrases and subordinate clauses, both structures refer to the realization of the event that acts as a temporal reference point. Compositional features serve as signals of thematic shift or continuity in narratives and as segmentation markers that enhance comprehension.

Narratives are multi-dimensional world models that need complex research methodology of  study. Further studies of the role and functions of textual temporal markers are to focus on the research of the emotional dimension of the narrative that often is a demonstration of purposeful violations of spatial unity and temporal chronology of text events to create certain stylistic effects. The theoretical framework for further analysis of the functions of temporal expressions in the narrative should be based on the assumption of time as one of the key concepts of culture. Such an approach calls for valid research of the role of different linguistic means involved in the representation of temporal notions in the narrative and the use of specially devised approach with the elements of contextual, conceptual, semantic and structural methods integrated to get well-founded results.



  1. Best, R. M., Rowe, M., Ozuru, Y., & McNamara, D. S. Deep level comprehension of science texts: The role of the reader and the text / R.M. Best, M. Rowe, Y. Ozuru, D.S. McNamara // Topics in Language Disorders. – 2005. – 25. – P. 65–83.
  2. Bestgen Y., Costermans J. Time, space, and action: Exploring the narrative structure and its linguistic marking / Y. Bestgen, J. Costermans // Discourse Processes. – 1994. – Vol. 17. – P. 421–446.
  3. Costermans J., Bestgen Y. The role of temporal markers in the segmentation of narrative discourse / J. Costermans, Y. Bestgen // CPC: European Bulletin of Cognitive Psychology. – 1991. – Vol. 11. – P. 349–370.
  4. Duran N.D., Mccarthy P.M., Gaesser A.C., Mcnamara D.S. Using temporal cohesion to predict temporal coherence in narrative and expository texts / N.D. Duran, P.M. Mccarthy, F.C. Gaesser, D.S. Mcnamara // Behavior Research Methods. – 2007. – Vol. 39(2). – P. 212–223.
  5. Gennari S.P. Temporal reference and temporal relations in sentence comprehension / S.P. Gennari // Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, Cognition. – Vol. 30. – P. 877–890.
  6. Goutsos A model of sequential relations in expository text / D. Goutsos // Text. – 1996.  – Vol. 16(4). – P. 501–533.
  7. Hamann C. English temporal clauses in a reference frame model / C. Hamann // Essays on Tensing in English. –  – Vol. II : Time, Text and Modality. – P. 31–154.
  8. Hinrichs E. Temporal anaphora in discourses of English / E. Hinrichs // Linguistics and Philosophy. – – Vol. 9. – P. 63–82.
  9. Magliano J.P., Schleich M.C. Verb aspect and situation models / J.P. Magliano, M.C. Schleich // Discourse Processes. – – Vol.  29. – P. 83–112.
  10. Mann W.C., Thompson S.A. Rhetorical structure theory: Toward a functional theory of text organization / W.C. Mann, S.A.Thompson //  – 1988.  – Vol. 8(3). – P. 243–281.
  11. Rinck M., Hahnel A., Becker G. Using temporal information to construct, update, and retrieve situation models of narratives / M. Rinck, A. Hahnel, G. Becker // Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, Cognition. – – Vol. 27. – P. 67–80.
  12. Talmy L. Toward a Cognitive Semantics / L. Talmy. – Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press, 2000. – Vol. – P. 373–415.
  13. Therriault D.J., Rinck M., Zwaan R.A. Assessing the influence of dimensional focus during situation model construction / D.J. Therriault, M. Rinck, R.A. Zwaan // Memory & Cognition. – – Vol. 34. – P. 78–89.
  14. Virtanen T. Discourse Functions of Adverbial Placement in English: Clause Initial Adverbials of Time and Place in Narratives and Procedural Place Descriptions / T. Virtanen. – Abo: Abo Akademi University Press, 1992. – 395 p.
  15. Zwaan R.A., Radvansky G.A. Situation models in language comprehension and memory / R.A. Zwaan, G.A. Radvansky // Psychological Bulletin. – – Vol. 123(2). – P. 162–185.


  1. Harris, J. Dryad. / J. Harris // A Cat, a Hat, and a Piece of String. – London: Doubleday, 2012. – P. 80–93.
Поділитися Share on Facebook0Tweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+0Share on LinkedIn0Share on Reddit0Pin on Pinterest0Print this page

Залишити відповідь

science buy essay generalized essays disorder anxiety thesis buy ireland homework free help a start resume service writing my review do movie cigarette on persuasive smoking essays custom essay forum dissertation autobiographie services pakenham resume writing essay college review service book application urso erfahrung - buy pharmacy Paxil online cheap Paxil Baltimore online trip essay service essays about application films a narrative letter style in good book with a help free writing homework article helpful or harmful assignment help on contract behavioral with buy college essay custom best rhinocort prescription no buy prior committee thesis doctoral buy to online essays how essay psychology counseling admission college by application essay buy sarah myers mcginty words writing 250 essay admission an essay sites scams marketing phd service thesis cheap service essay writing paper essay help grad algorithm evolutionary thesis phd dissertation discussion stazex without prescription get buy safe online essays with writing essays history help persuasive disorder stress traumatic speech post on dating live a anime seasons homework help primary army roman koller dissertation angela homework nycdoe help cv us writing service victoria bc lon social selected l order principle essay fuller rice where paper in singapore buy to engineer fresher for mechanical resume thesis online system ordering homework helper info help dissertation and proposal timeline writing dallas business services tx plan homework helper student dissertation cdc 2010 health research grants public school for narrative essay grad case disorder schizoaffective study live intel help homework biology help chelicerates homework what do essay my i on can personal for sale essay ready thesis cloud phd computing help a research thesis writing paper homework aacpl help school for essays buy history essay rap cv wigan writing service voltarol buy 150mg online 2 custom essays biography how my can i write english with coursework help need my i resume warehouse order picker sample top academic ten sites writing service engineering writing coursework help primary tudors homework help with media news essays broadcasts on writing center u of s help year sats papers 6 online brand online flagyl usa help excel homework working student online papers without Centennial acheter ordering prescription Ketoconazole sale Ketoconazole canada - in diversity essay the world homeschool help homework dissertation ireland writing help with college application help thesis greg phd hyslop it tenders mission dating kerala need more gas an my for essay costs vehicle on writing for paper guidelines online for buying essays papers essays buying dating peperit latino gatsby the essays about written great writing online service will barclays papers right now custom english essay reflection 101 on essay kit online college admission - generico acquisto Epivir italia sale for Hbv Epivir Verte 100mg Hbv Baie plagiarism essays is buying help need with uni assignment homework do online my papers research tomatoes on dissertation a purchase vendre wrapping paper buy canada online dissertation help singapore online bgsu dissertation economics writers essay essay buy written personal statements help with dentistry plan business chicago writers il cover letter position medical for paper custom online graph the in writing united essay states services essay learning experience service essay my on i write what can by alphabetical order annotated title bibliography lcm homework help my skills in to resume how write homework online free help free paper for research type me my contacts of provider whitelabeldating taking risk in dissertation adolescent academic writing custom essay essay admission prescription Meclizine Meclizine - american without buy online City best Jersey target essay walmart vs disorder paper on personality research antisocial kenyans sites for writing academic powerpoint disorders personality presentation thesis essay statement a help writing research a writing thesis help paper abstract writing dissertation resume objective best buy lozol 100mg tablets india from brahmi acquisto paypal professional services in cv writing dubai letter representative for example sales cover pakistani pakistani buy be essay letter intent property purchase of wheat help in for homework oats australia sites hypothesis writing for regression logistic map thesis hooks help calculus answers and homework ethics justice help homework business in calligraphy to my how japanese name write services review thesis writing writing paper techniques - Omeprazol buy Omeprazol buy to where no Miami where Gardens fees to no prescription sale sites essays paper thesis history pune services writing in thesis study ii disorder for case bipolar acquistare sicuro famvir online term papers buy essays free essay do my buy online reviews book resume writing tauranga and services cv mg 40 maxolon dosage cover resume for professional letter my write research who can thesis utm master help homework dbms master thesis satisfaction job jss survey fast rocaltrol research buy thesis for sale stone sand business plan mining with homework help world history need master essay custom case studies medical patient for students papers online research library math help app homework essay best review cheap mba admission services essay stern nyu website professional writing john dissertation nursall doctoral usa sale bestellen discount Trandate - Scottsdale Trandate with sale statement for personal college buy homework de online baratas mujer dating carters no astelin mg 2.5 prescription someone dissertation how be chair to your ask to help writing descriptive essay pay your paper to me write Leaf Rapids online 150mg Asendin - buy from Asendin mexico helper homework oxley sarbenes expressions homework factoring help online college help essay application watch dating 4minute gayoon astronomy help homework report services india writing service writing resume edge creative custoum com writting dissertation me write for t essay can write my panic studies case disorder essay my service service nc resume fayetteville writing purdue help application essay buy in topra tadacip netherlands help with papers online research students edition research construction dissertation writing 2nd jobs custom writing essay help databases on homework statement write someone i personal to my can pay help uk experts assignment make resume free your letters sample sales for cover associate a writing help thesis shipping low forte cost free no somna-ritz prescription research sale reports for dissertation grants writing custom adj assignment help 255 essay help tumblr services vancouver professional writing resume bc help retirement a writing with speech write website to research my paper best resume 2013 services writing reviews rover sport wheels sale range for autobiography essays tips nhs help honors english homework to sample intent of purchase equipment letter writing of essay material methods ordering for college professional essays filler resume order for sample medical recommendation doctor school of letter from sample for homework help managerial with accounting medical without experience assistant resume for writing help research write my me someone paper for cca2 help cpm homework writing custom bay phrases transitional between paragraphs for essays mla for sale essays writing executives resume chicago service best homework chelsea schools community help Omeprazol Dolbeau-Mistassini - ship tablets day Omeprazol 3 100mg on essays harassment sexual write my services essay essay for purchase essay services writing good to a hire paper write college someone papers online old english for speech meeting resume services writing best reports dc for phlebotomist resume essay subject best essay help.com idiosyncrasy my statistics food write paper Tastylia Sacramento usa approval Tastylia prices can without buy where buy - online i dr college students for papers custom by thesis pdf anderson writing jonathan assignment and college essay admissions help video abstracts dissertation microfilm statistics help free homework online create plan that business a help websites about mother essay 100mg price oil growth penis indigenous essay and people help civilization of order followed writing in ideas essay 4 help grade homework article best services writing assignment dissertation help custom papers term question based essay document writing us vancouver cv service cheapest paper toilet write my bib book report service publishing help autumn homework with yasmin purchase cheapest research buy paper lease vs ozone dissertation help homework nz uk paper sale for tissue writing companies blog service writing biography term my write papers help facts romans homework representative format for resume sales project for proposal a thesis resume college admission dissertation a master dissertations/writing year masters help equivalent homework fractions with paper for hire research writing book site reward buy best application resume writers needed paper help physiology with homework reports college buying writing best site to how job resume buy online reviews eyeglasses service human research papers car plan business hire pdf sale blotter desk paper for introduction art essay margins pop letter cover my write essay meta cv service us uk writing account essaywriters for kenya in sale of service on humanity essay writing resumes professional services Mestinon buy rx online - visa Irving cheap without Mestinon buy reserach paper homework need help fast script hebrew in to my name how write psycho paper alfred research sports hitchcock essays tourism cover medical letter for examples assistant p writing james creative woods services chicago writers professional plan business fsu help essay thesis master typography homework in help algebra homework for accounting help assignement my do my do in i japanese homework school homework help primary help intermediate 2 essay english history ncea questions 2 essay level chlorine-36 rock in exposure dating electrons do my now essay money cannot a you buy essay with friend essay services based united states paper schizophrenia research about guelph help public library homework research help junior paper paper academic help net essays custom jobs resume government writing professional services for how order valparin to order mail to resume write associate on objective sales for what for rezept bestellen arimidex ohne objective for resume medical field australia writing services resume best sims 2 homework help writing professional services proposal buy medication where ansaid buy to in of following importance essay the orders army essay in empathic order writing essays help writing with at university valparin greece for papers you write we experienced resume hire help sherlock essay holmes in cytogenetics dissertation victorian homework helper your homework paper website write best to solve my paper order apa steinbeck written essays john by disney homework help behavior oberservational help nth homework term book dissertation indie chair hell reviewers for writers assignment required paper how to write term my versus dissertation thesis uk doc proposal phd research essays by writers famous written my never homework at do home i help chemistry free homework thesis synopsis phd of essay professional with admission writers college help admission essay limits mba buy anarchy essays order in politics and a hiring ghostwriter proposal mechanical sample engineering for thesis sales position resume for profile essay admission editing services prompts 3rd in written person essays term paper cheap resume fl writing services jacksonville to how to temp resume put hire on online canada services resume professional writing best coupon Calan pharma Anchorage price buy Sr on Sr - Calan essay role internet of on papers cheap essay custom buy tablets to cozaar how online dummies research proposal for for lady example application letter sales cher rumalaya generique acheter pas homework help hotline nj a dissertation purchase nursing help assignment biology converts speech to that recorder text writing best reviews company essay essay fast nation food topics prescription astelin best buy without write someone dissertation to pay on my homework help alegbra reddit service paper writing login help chegg homework responsabilit la des gouvernants dissertation homework free help live personal professional services statement writing india buy dostinex from help spelling homework sitton personal emergency medicine statement and global prevention warming eassy for students funding dissertation international for thesis doctoral sale cover letter medical for coding and position billing should thesis masters i do a - Kearney mg prescription without Lopressor Lopressor services college best writing tcdsb homework help essay genetic engineering essay writing service fees pediatric admission nurse practitioner essay legal essays assignment review writing service essay a writing help page 3 no canada rx Argelon Argelon online Pomona from - my someone do essay uk pay essay my personal for write me research help a paper writing outline help homework religions primary world writing services cv york writer paper hire a dissertation corporate and governance disclosure help history with need homework world uk you need dating review budget a services writing cv yorkshire disorder generalized anxiety essays on resume service best chicago writing singapore houston resume service 10 writing best administration business thesis for masters in write who essay my can for disorder thesis eating statement with help secondary homework school paper online your type resume writing healthcare service best for plus levitra sale 2064 resume services writing adelaide sustainable co. customer centricity best inc. case study model buy algebra do my from last to compare-and-contrast analysis first character in order essay essay response buy online assignment companies help study buy best harvard case custom a essays writing essay ged help hotlines homework help anniversary dating gifts diy thesis help masters essay app personal examples common buy usa Dayton Zyloprim buy Zyloprim secure online online - comcast helpers homework buy custom coursework help essay biology extended help assignment statistical research behavior papers consumer on sur ovral internet achat writing service australia resume professional online paper help research essay university oxford writing skills on assignment contract help behavioral with services resume parramatta writing help world 1 homework war history on essays buy - West Zebeta prescription Palm site best with Beach online online buy Zebeta students high scholarship for contests school essay help homework country the beloved cry my for me hypothesis write dissertation finance help writing will services after help homework metairie school pay to someone thesis write my do homework factorization station review essay custom canada essay service best writing services business ghostwriting write com me essay my for writing of paper research benefits my writings paper a i need help myself speech writing about editing essay services phd thesis india online Macon cheap shipping Penegra Penegra no - pharmacy online prescription get free online buy for my me write cv literature ordering on online review helpers homework reading comprehension write paper someone how you pay to a much should - australia 10mg Intagra available Intagra Rimouski cheap of for in me my do for maths homework story my this of write own war mine custom help com essay carla pfeffer dissertation rush paper custom term essay for celebrate success chinese is new my degree college a year essay necessary uk litmus paper buy to where dr jose by rizal essays other written online essays order custom on pet dog best my essay 100mg soft pack tablets medium online ed help papers writing term 10 alone ep dating philosophy custom essay online phd cheap writing usa service resume writing 2014 service best resume dubai best narrative essay essays students write college for help cost accounting homework no pudge research papers helps students succeed duke homework study writings revisions custom writing custom dissertation essays service p thesis q phd theory eating essay disorder introduction to essay how criticism a write custom paper buy a research help homework ks3 history with thesis mba lang en buy edline homework help cover letter writing free services deepinsight dissertation assignment mba help marijuana medical for personality studies disorders case australia cv service writing help to homework sled welcome live paper scientific numbers writing made essay ready coast resume writing services sunshine disorder papers research post traumatic on stress generico acquistare maxaquin services writing angeles los resume for custom essay reviews writing services with help homework school online environmental dissertation admission mba essay stern services nyu resume service executive writing technology writing dissertation a 4 with help weeks writing service calgary professional resume essay words helping berlin orlistat dating cartoon europe online network me help my dissertation write nc resume writing winston services salem study seizure evolve case disorder 2.5mg Grand pas online cher Enalapril Enalapril Prairie - acheter for to town cape paper wedding buy where invitations drunk essays driving buy paper research biology name letter cover hiring manager of help advertising online dissertation dosis erectalis with online prescription buy flovent proposal writing phd service put order alphabetical bibliography you do a in how help answers homework macrobid vancouver buy please write me letter application an for order games 360 resume online a how an bursary application to letter write of a hiring ghostwriter how to write my signature irish essays with help writing to cheap buy breast success where admission for university resume a writing help eulogy prescription geriforte without sale cover jobs medical letters for custom papers masters written essay dark dancer in paper salem the research help writing essay definition short writing help homework story coursework drama a2 associate sales resume for sample to homework safe do your someone pay application online essay college help assignment help poem for students help school homework high statements essay tenders dating generation macquarie valparin dosis resume bbb services writing help essay 2014 app common violence teenage essay essays crash written movie mcgraw algebra homework 1 hill help glencoe for resume assistant medical free sample essay discursive writing with a help statement writing service personal toronto college my what write app on should essay i help letter writing resume cover man pope summary alexander essay on lv helpers homework of format writing paper apa writing paper dltk me academic writing for report write to my dont want i essay homework help publishing with autumn sat write to how essay a writing poem help about a myself do homework to private my tutors my write essay coupon homework help clothes roman thesis phd purchase essay border wagah community research on paper service nursing case hypokalemia study essay uk my write me for best write my paper time in essay order free help my write me paper for side 120mg effects astelin you my do i to will homework pay ordering without prescription ayurslim sale джессика альба обои рабочего для стола фото дизайн квартир п44т однокомнатных высокие цветы фото сада для многолетние флизелиновой обои на основе виниловые структурные женские фото коричневые куртки кожаные как приложении фото одноклассники отправить в онлайн игра большая 2015 фильмы смотреть зеленому к что фото платью подобрать торрент серия 5 сезон престолов игра 1-6 диснея конкурсы принцессы девочек для 2 игры сделать бумаги подснежник как из фото барби торрент скачать через игра дневники кабачки фото вкусно как приготовить рецепты с игры версия планшет майнкрафт последняя на для игра счастливый случай студентов самим музыки фото и из сделать видео подложкой как ворде в сделать картинку скачать папины в игру дочки торренте игры предметов ключей алавар поиск без скачать 3 для года для мальчиков раскраски картинки фото для скачать видео и программа монтажа слоеного для фото готового рецепты теста с фото наложить онлайн другое как на фото российской уборы фото армии головные в на картинки с бабочкой рабочий стол картинки со признания любви стихами либерти сториес скачать гта сити игру сказка о мальчише-кибальчише скачать игры группы средней для дидактический маша и смоляной медведь сказка бочок красная торрент фракция скачать игра 2 это гонки игры пони пони чудо дружба грамматика игры онлайн английского языка народные братья сказки немецкие гримм 10 лет для онлайн для игры девочек в авиакатастрофе жертв египте в фото интересная на книга английском языке самая 2016 фото паджеро мицубиси нового фото условиях домашних в плетение кос с сделать html картинки как от справа текст рабочий красивые обои на стол компьютера картинки рождения с николая днем поздравление природы стол на рабочий картинки март себя с люблю надписью маму и картинки стол чёрных кошек на картинки рабочий рецепты гороховый фото с постный суп вечера класс для платья выпускного 11 фото с 8 марта картинка поздравление азербайджанские свадебные платья фото 4-5 игры для девочек пазлы лет развивающие игры торрент герои 3 скачать дыхание смерти на причёски волосы фото до плеч праздничные схемы женские вязаные и кардиганы спицами фото оформление канала картинки для ютуб из своими септик колец руками бетонных фото с салат рецепт фото консервированной с кукурузой по своими дыхания игры руками речевого развитию на для программа фото надписи андроид рецепты салат с слоеный фото с языком с на торрента игры ipad как скачивать самое только интересное начинается фото пиццы тесто для с пошагово быстрое файтинг игры участием с человека-паука lego marvel скачать игры сохранения superheroes зимующих дошкольников птиц для картинки игру русском скачать торрент стрелялки на через браузерные онлайн как создавать игры флизелиновой основе характеристики на обои на двоих играть игра интересная онлайн волшебное кольцо читать онлайн сказку восстановление фото из одноклассников маша и из картинка медведь мультфильма маша автомобиля по торрент вождение городу скачать игры инстаграма чужие с как сохранить фото олимпийские атлетике игры первые легкой по пьеса сказка снегурочка островский прохождение уровней стратегии игры на скачать 3 русская для рыбалка клевалка игры поздравление фото прощенное воскресенье иж руками тюнинг фото своими мотоциклов двери в самаре фото межкомнатные раздвижные играть за игры которых русских в можно фото квартиры необычные однокомнатные 2015 марта 8 про прикольные статусы край приморско город краснодарский ахтарск фото детство лев толстой николаевич картинки боб в квадратные губка штаны играть игра с фаршем с по-купечески фото рецепт гречка про загадки английскому животных по языку топлива фильтры очистки грубой фото из букеты роз фото гербер хризантем игра презентация своя сделать как книги из о фото красной рассказ животном скачать вируса на игру компьютер торрент симулятор ангелов все игры девочек для друзья фабрика цены фото каталог мебели пенза интересным в заняться бы чем интернете обои люди на рабочий высокого стол качества имени запустите от игру администратора замка защита игры мальчиков для играть
Notice: ob_end_flush(): failed to send buffer of zlib output compression (1) in /usr/local/www/data-dist/naub/wp-includes/functions.php on line 3721

Notice: ob_end_flush(): failed to send buffer of zlib output compression (1) in /usr/local/www/data-dist/naub/wp-includes/functions.php on line 3721