СТРУКТУРНІ ПАРАМЕТРИ КРИТИЧНИХ ЗАУВАЖЕНЬ В АНГЛОМОВНІЙ НАУКОВІЙ СТАТТІ

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УДК 811.111’42

О. Л. Балацька

Полтавський національний технічний університет імені Юрія Кондратюка, м. Полтава

СТРУКТУРНІ ПАРАМЕТРИ КРИТИЧНИХ ЗАУВАЖЕНЬ

В АНГЛОМОВНІЙ НАУКОВІЙ СТАТТІ

У статті аналізуються структурні параметри критичних зауважень у провідному жанрі англомовного наукового дискурсу – статті. Встановлено, що за складом критичні зауваження подані двома типами: згорнутими, котрі містять лише основну частину – висловлення негативної оцінки, – та розгорнутими, в яких окрім обов’язкової основної частини наявна додаткова, де вказується на потребу та / або шляхи усунення виявленого порушення. Додаткова частина може передувати основній, йти за нею або розміщуватися й у препозиції, і в постпозиції. Вивчено частотність застосування виокремлених типів критичних зауважень в англомовній науковій статті.

Ключові слова: англомовний науковий дискурс, жанр, стаття, критичне зауваження, негативна оцінка, структурні параметри.

В статье анализируются структурные параметры критических замечаний в ведущем жанре англоязычного научного дискурса – статье. Установлено, что по составу критические замечания представлены двумя типами: свернутыми, которые содержат только основную часть – высказывание негативной оценки, – и развернутыми, в которых кроме обязательной основной части присутствует дополнительная, где указывается необходимость и / или способы устранения обнаруженного недостатка. Дополнительная часть может предшествовать основной, идти за ней или размещаться и в препозиции, и в постпозиции. Изучена частотность использования выделенных типов критических замечаний в англоязычной научной статье.

Ключевые слова: англоязычный научный дискурс, жанр, статья, критическое замечание, негативная оценка, структурные параметры.

The article analyzes structural parameters of critical remarks in the leading genre of English-language scientific discourse article. It has been found out that, on the basis of their structure, critical remarks can be classified into two types: compressed critical remarks which contain only the main parta negative evaluative utterance (-s) – and expanded critical remarks which, in addition to the main part, include supplementary part indicating the need and / or ways of eliminating shown-up shortcomings. The supplementary part can go before the main part, can follow it or can be both in preposition, and in postposition. Critical remark type frequency in research articles in English has been studied.

Key words: English-language scientific discourse, genre, article, critical remark, negative evaluation, structural parameters.

Сучасність вимагає від лінгвістів дослідження різноманітних аспектів англомовної наукової комунікації, що спричинено зростанням ролі науки для розвитку суспільства, поширенням глобалізаційних процесів та набуттям англійською мовою статусу lingua franca. Водночас вивчення англомовного наукового дискурсу як типу інституційного дискурсу належить до одного з найбільш актуальних напрямів сучасного мовознавства – дискурсології. Вчені досліджують англомовний науковий дискурс як у цілому, так і за окремими компонентами [3; 4; 10 і т. д.], зокрема велика увага приділяється вивченню жанрів англомовного наукового дискурсу [5; 11 та ін.], з-поміж яких провідним визнана наукова стаття [14; 6 і т.д.].

Одним з обов’язкових компонентів сучасної англомовної наукової статті є критика [1, с. 6], оскільки будь-яка наукова праця є розвитком чи спростуванням раніше визнаних положень, полемікою з іншими напрямками чи окремими вченими [2, с. 66].

Критика вже неодноразово потрапляла у фокус уваги низки зарубіжних дослідників [13; 7–9; 12 та ін.], проте згадані розвідки не охоплюють усієї проблематики. Зосібна, наскільки нам відомо, структурні характеристики критичних зауважень до цього часу ще не були об’єктом спеціального дослідження, а тому потребують подальшого вивчення.

Мета цієї статті полягає у вивченні структурних параметрів критичних зауважень в англомовній науковій статті та розробці типології критичних зауважень за їхніми структурними характеристиками.

Об’єктом аналізу є критичне зауваження в англомовній науковій статті, а предметом виступають структурні параметри критичних зауважень.

Матеріалом дослідження слугували 1027 критичних зауважень, отриманих з 350 статей з 10 гуманітарних дисциплін, опублікованих в електронних наукових журналах Великої Британії та США за 2009–2011 рр.

Критика / критичне зауваження (КЗ) – вербально виражене негативне ставлення автора до певного (фрагмента) наукового дослідження [1, с. 1].

У результаті аналізу фактичного матеріалу було встановлено, що КЗ в англомовній науковій статті окрім основної частини – висловлення негативної оцінки (ВНО), часом можуть містити й додаткову частину – висловлення, яке (-і) об’єктивує (-ють) підстави негативної оцінки та вказує (-ють) на необхідність та / або шляхи подолання наявних вад. Тобто можемо розглядати КЗ як одно- або двоскладну структуру, причому в останньому випадку виникає необхідність з’ясування зв’язків між складниками КЗ.

За наявністю / відсутністю додаткової частини в КЗ виокремлюємо такі два типи критики, як згорнутий і розгорнутий.

Згорнуті КЗ (приклади 1–3) містять у своєму складі лише основну частину:

(1) He failed to consider the trade relations of Nigeria with these advanced countries, especially in crude oil which is the major export commodity.

(2) The spectropolitical phantamolization or spectralization of radical culture in the Romantic period has been undervalued by critics.

(3) Previous studies of depression, anxiety and stress on people in institutions of learning focused mainly on teachers and school administrators (e.g. 23, 24, 25). Most of these studies were on stress rather than depression and anxiety. The studies that investigated depression, anxiety and stress in university students dealt mainly with non-trainee teachers rather than student teachers (both preservice and inservice).

Розгорнуті КЗ (приклади 4–6) включають у себе основну та додаткову частини. (Тут і далі основну частину КЗ – ВНО – підкреслюємо прямою, а додаткову частину – пунктирною лінією).

(4) But while these answers are readily operationalizable, they aren’t very satisfactory because they don’t tell us anything about the state of the actual documentation.

У цьому прикладі додаткова частина об’єктивує підстави негативної оцінки.

(5) Although the results provide new insights to current research, this field is far from well developed, and a continued research effort is needed to understand organizational knowledge, knowledge management process, entrepreneurship process and their integrated influences on firms’ innovation performance.

Це КЗ містить додаткову частину, в якій указується на необхідність усунення наявного недоліку шляхом проведення подальших досліджень.

(6) Despite the reliability of this method which could easily be used at a national level it is often not possible to use it for price level calculation at regional levels usually because of lack of data. It is necessary to modify the methodology for regional price level computation purposes according to data availability in particular member states (there is a problem of regional consumption basket data gathering and scope of regional prices observed).

Фрагмент (6) є прикладом КЗ, у додатковій частині якого об’єктивована причина виникнення недоліку (usually because of lack of data), указано на необхідність його усунення (It is necessary), а також на можливі шляхи такого виправлення (to modify the methodology for regional price level computation purposes according to data availability in particular member states).

У кількісному відношенні згорнуті КЗ (84,91 %) помітно домінують над розгорнутими КЗ (15,09 %).

Залежно від розташування додаткової частини відносно основної – перед нею чи після, – розгорнуті КЗ поділяємо на препозитивні, постпозитивні та комбіновані.

У препозитивних КЗ основна частина розміщена перед додатковою, наприклад:

(7) Ernestina de Champourcin‘s only published novel La casa de enfrente (1936) has received scarce attention from the scholars of literature. One of the reasons behind this critical neglect is the fact that the novel came out less than two months before the beginning of the Civil War. Even though the initial reaction to La casa de enfrente seems to have been favorable (Landeira 32-3), the tragic events of the war, as well as Champourcin‘s exile, plunged the novel into oblivion.

(8) This argument, however, is not sound since the extent of foreign borrowings into CA and their acceptability or naturalization is obscurred by the large timeframe in which it happened and “by the degree to which foreign elements have extended to be assimilated to the root-pattern system of the morphology and also by the organizing principles of Arabic dictionaries, whereby assimilated borrowings are listed under a theoretical ‘root’” (305).

(9) Our study was limited to a five-year observation period; it is advised that as more data become available, a much longer observation period should be considered to enhance insight.

У постпозитивних КЗ основна частина міститься після додаткової:

(10) <…> the factors that led to the current results are unknown. For this reason, the present findings should be treated as preliminary.

(11) Although efforts were made to recruit as many participants as possible from the population of educational professionals, only those who had the time and interest in participating completed out surveys. This process of self selection for participation means we cannot generalize from this sample to make any claims characterizing the population of all educational psychologists and other education professionals.

(12) Notably, this study includes a higher number of female patients, so the findings could possibly be accounted only by this subgroup of subjects. Also, the lack of assessments at the first week after treatment initiation might be an additional limitation. Finally, another limitation is that the study has been mainly based on self-report with a possible biasing effect of the current mood.

У комбінованих КЗ основна частина розміщена у пре- й постпозиції відносно додаткової частини або навпаки:

(13) It may be that female participants in the present study were aware of their decreased willingness to help kin and friends in violent situations and therefore compensated by circling greater altruism ratings for the non-violent situations. This seems unlikely, but it could be possible since all participants were presented with all altruism examples. Therefore this may represent a limitation of this study and perhaps future research could use altruism type as a between-subject variable to examine if this is the reason for the significant effect.

У цьому прикладі КЗ складається з основної частини – одного ВНО, а також додаткової частини, що у препозиції до основної актуалізує підстави негативної оцінки, а у постпозиції – вказує на необхідність подальших дій.

(14) Many scholars who assess this concern, however, base their inquiries on an assumption that the labor force status of mothers is a proxy for time with children (see Huston & Aronson, 2005 for a review). This appears to be a faulty assumption, as recent evidence has effectively demonstrated employed mothers often reduce their time investment in other areas, such as housework (Bianchi, 2000), in order to maintain time with their children. <…> By acknowledging working mothers’ strategies to protect their time with children, it is apparent that many have overestimated the reduction in time with children as a function of employment status.

У фрагменті (14) між двома ВНО, що складають основну частину КЗ, міститься висловлення, яке об’єктивує підстави негативної оцінки та формує додаткову частину КЗ, котра розташована постпозитивно відносно першого ВНО – складника основної частини – та препозитивно відносно другого.

За результатами підрахунків, у 45,16 % розгорнутих КЗ додаткова частина реалізована препозитивно, у 37,42 % – у комбінований спосіб та у 17,42 % – постпозитивно.

Перспективою роботи є компаративні дослідження структурних параметрів критичних зауважень в англомовних та україномовних наукових статтях.

 

Список літератури

  1. Балацька О. Л. Дискурсивні властивості критики в англомовній науковій статті : автореф. дис. … канд. філол. наук : спец. 10.02.04 – германські мови / Олена Леонідівна Балацька; Харківський національний університет імені В. Н. Каразіна. – Харків, 2013. – 20 с.
  2. Гальперин И.Р. Текст как объект лингвистического анализа / И. Р. Гальперин. – М. : Наука, 1981. – 140 с.
  3. Ільченко О. М. Етикет англомовного наукового дискурсу / Ольга Михайлівна Ільченко. – К. : Політехніка, 2002.– 288 с.
  4. КарасикВ. И. Языковой круг : личность, концепты, дискурс / В. И. Карасик. – Волгоград : Перемена, 2002. – 477 с.
  5. Яхонтова Т. В. Лінгвістична генологія наукової комунікації : монографія / Тетяна Вадимівна Яхонтова. – Л. : Видавничий центр ЛНУ ім. І.Франка, 2009. – 420 с.
  6. Bhatia V. K. Analyzing Genre : Language Use in Professional Settings / V. K. Bhatia.  – London : Longman, 1993. – P. 150–159.
  7. Crossed Words : Criticism in Scholarly Writing / [Ed. Françoise Salager-Meyer, Beverly A Lewin]. – Peter Lang Publishing, Incorporated, 2011. – 371 p.
  8. Fagan A. The use of critical speech acts in psychology and chemistry research papers / A. Fagan, P. Martin Martin // – 2004. – No. 8. – P.125–137.
  9. Giannoni Negative Evaluation in Academic Discourse. A Comparison of English and Italian Research Articles / Simone Giannoni // Linguistica e Filologia. – 2005. – No. 20. – P. 71–99.
  10. Halliday M. A. K. Writing science : Literacy and discursive power / M. A.  K. Halliday, J. R. Martin. – Bristol, PA : Falmer Press, 1993. – 283 р.
  11. Hyland K. Academic Discourse : English In A Global Context / Ken Hyland. – Bloomsbury, 2009. – 256 p.
  12. Mur-Dueñas P. Critical Acts in Published and Unpublished Research Article Introductions in English : A Look into the Writing for Publication Process [Electronic resource] / Pilar Mur-Dueñas // International Advances in Writing Research : Cultures, Places, Measures. – Parlor Press · The WAC Clearinghouse 2012. – P. 403–420. – Access : http://wac.colostate.edu/books/wrab2011/.
  13. Salager-Meyer F. Rhetorical evolution of oppositional discourse in French аcademic writing / Françoise Salager-Meyer // Hermes, Journal of Linguistics. – 2000. – 25. – Р. 23–48.
  14. Swales J. M. Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings / J. M. Swales.  – Cambridge : Cambridge Press, 1990. – 260 p.

 

 

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