КОНЦЕПТ BEAUTY У ХУДОЖНЬОМУ ДИСКУРСІ

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УДК 811.111’0:159. 955

А.В. Косенко

Чернівецький національний університет імені Юрія Федьковича

КОНЦЕПТ BEAUTY У ХУДОЖНЬОМУ ДИСКУРСІ

У статті виявляються лінгвокультурні характеристики концепту beauty.В ході  дослідження визначаються основні риси художнього дискурсу, виявляються особливості репрезентації досліджуваного концепту у ньому та реконструюється асоціативна мережа концепту beautyу художньому дискурсі.

В статье оказываются лингвокультурные характеристики концепта beauty. В ходе  исследования определяются основные черты художественного дискурса, особенности репрезентации исследуемого концепта в нем и реконструируется ассоциативная сеть концепта beauty в художественном дискурсе.

Lingvocultural characteristics of the concept beauty are studied in the article. In the process of the research the main features of the literary discourse are determined, the peculiarities of the representation of the concept under consideration within it are determined, the associative network of the concept beauty in the literary discourse is reconstructed.

Ключові слова: концепт, дискурс, асоціат, асоціативна мережа, сполучуваність, естетична оцінка,  етична оцінка,

Ключевые слова: концепт, дискурс, ассоциат,ассоциативная сеть, сочетаемость, эстетическая оценка, этическая оценка.

Key words: concept, discourse, associate, associative network, compatibility, aesthetic evaluation, ethical evaluation

Метою розвідки є виявлення лінгвокультурних характеристик концепту beauty, що передбачає вирішення таких завдань: 1) визначення основних рис художнього дискурсу; 2) виявлення особливостей репрезентації досліджуваного концепту у ньому; 3) реконструкція асоціативної мережі концепту beauty у художньому дискурсі.

Художній дискурс визначають як стильове середовище, що віддзеркалює культурно-мовний універсум відповідної епохи на основі валоризації комунікативних і лінгвостилістичних параметрів [3, с. 4], мову усієї художньої літератури, яка в процесі мовленнєвої реалізації постає у вигляді текстів художніх творів,систему, яка функціонує в художній літературі як засіб відображення реальної чи вигаданої дійсності, як засіб передачі автором свого розуміння й сприйняття цієї дійсності, а також як засіб комунікації автора та читача, їх взаємотворчості [2, с. 253].

Його також розглядають як мова усієї художньої літератури, яка у процесі мовленнєвої реалізації постає у вигляді текстів художніх творів [5, с. 253].

Текстовий концепт, в свою чергу, визначають як кодованемовленнєво-розумове утворення змістового плану, зумовлене багатосмисловою напруженістю художнього тексту, характеризується надкатегоріальністю й імплікує сукупність ознакових рис художнього твору [4].

Саме текстовій реалізації концепту присвячено чимало новітніх мовознавчих студій, що й зумовлює актуальність запропонованої статі.

Матеріалом дослідження були твори 95 американських та британських авторів загальним обсягом 172 000 сторінок (43 688 005 слововживань). Це складає повну вибірку програмного забезпечення: DigitaleBibliothekBand 59: EnglishandAmericanLiterature та ModernEnglishLiterature [1], що дозволяє досягти високого рівня достовірності отриманих даних.

Найчастіше серед засобів вербалізації лінгвоконцепту beautyвикористовують лексеми pretty(9586):She was pretty too – at least I thought so then, and I had seen so little of other women, that I could make no comparisons, and see no defects /Jane Austen/;fine(6365): A fine looking man of perhaps sixty was bending over me, an expression of much benevolence mingled with great curiosity upon his features /Edward Bellamy/;beauty (6037)таbeautiful(5552): Waving that point, however, and supposing her to be, as you describe her, only pretty and good-natured, let me tell you, that in the degree she possesses them, they are not trivial recommendations to the world in general, for she is, in fact, a beautiful girl, and must be thought so by ninety-nine people out of an hundred; and till it appears that men are much more philosophic on the subject of beauty than they are generally supposed; till they do fall in love with well-informed minds instead of handsome faces, a girl, with such loveliness as Harriet, has a certainty of being admired and sought after, of having the power of choosing from among many, consequently a claim to be nice/Jane Austen/.

До другої за частотністю групи відносимо лексемиhandsome(867):I scarcely think, however, that her intention in this went further than just to show a very handsome man that she was not quite a plain woman: and plain she was not. Without beauty of feature or elegance of form, she pleased /Charlote Bronte/;excellent (759): To speak truth, reader, there is no excellent beauty, no accomplished grace, no reliable refinement, without strength has excellent, as complete, as trustworthy. As well might you look for good fruit and blossom on a rootless and sapless tree, as for charms that will endure in a feeble and relaxed nature. For a little while, the blooming semblance of beauty may flourish round weakness; but it cannot bear a blast: it soon fades, even in serenest sunshine /Charlote Bronte/.

Третюгрупустановлятьлексемиlovely (103):And this blank in Hetty’s nature, instead of exciting Dinah’s dislike, only touched her with a deeper pity: the lovely face and form affected her as beauty always affects a pure and tender mind, free from selfish jealousies /Thomas Stearns Eliot/;value (97):All that followed was the result of her imprudence; and he went off with her at last, because he could not help it, regretting Fanny, even at the moment, but regretting her infinitely more, when all the bustle of the intrigue was over, and a very few months had taught him, by the force of contrast, to place a yet higher value on the sweetness of her temper, the purity of her mind, and the excellence of her principles /Jane Austen/;grace(83): The inns were clean and comfortable. In one or two of the larger towns they were quite sumptuous, and the food was good and well cooked. The same wonderful health and grace and beauty prevailed everywhere /Samuel Buttler/;delicate (69):Her name was Emily; a girl fair to excess, and whose limbs were, if possible, too well made, since their plump fulness was rather to the prejudice of that delicate slimness required by the nicer judges of beauty; her eyes were blue, and streamed inexpressible sweetness, and nothing could be prettier than her mouth and lips, which closed over a range of the evenest and whitest teeth /John Cleland/.

Елементи четвертої групи відіграють доповнювальну роль у структурі засобів вербалізації досліджуваного концепту.

Загалом структура засобів вербалізації концепту beautyохоплює оцінки зовнішності (pretty, beautiful, handsome, lovely), проявів краси (grace, delicate), етичну та естетичну (value, excellent).

Реконструкція асоцітивної мережі лінгвоконцепту beauty у художньому дискурсі дозволить виявити особливості сприйняття автором прекрасного та змоделювати площину понять, що є для неї суміжними з ним.

У ході аналізу було виявлено 58 асоціатів лексеми beauty,щохарактеризуються різними частотними параметрами.

Так, найчастотнішими є асоціати Elegance (34):Now Mary, I declare it was so, I heard it myself, and you werein the other room. ‘Elegance, sweetness, beauty.’ Oh! there was no end of Miss Elliot’s charms /Jane Austen/;Grace(33):Julia was blest with beauty, wit, and grace:Small poets loved to sing her blooming face /Samuel Coleridge/;Youth (33): (Her father captivated by youth and beauty, and that appearance of good humour, which youth and beauty generally give, had married a woman whose weak understanding and illiberal mind, had very early in their marriage put an end to all real affection for her /Jane Austen/;Style (30): (Some fine forms there were here and there, models of a peculiar style of beauty; a style, I think, never seen in England: a solid, firm-set, sculptural style /Charlotte Bronte/;Face (28): («Pretty! say beautiful rather. Can you imagine anything nearer perfect beauty than Emma altogether – face and figure?» /Jane Austen/;Accomplishment(26): (She had neither beauty, genius, accomplishment, nor manner /Jane Austen/;Colour (23) (For the world’s beauty is decayed, or gone, Beauty, that’s colour, and proportion /John Donne/;Fashion (20): (On the other hand, it was a familiar thing to Mrs. Vance, who not only knew of it as an entity, but had often been in it, going purposely to see and be seen, to create a stir with her beauty and dispel any tendency to fall short in dressiness by contrasting herself with the beauty and fashion of the town /Theodore Dreiser/.

Ближнюпериферію складають асоціати Sweetness (16), Good nature (15), Merit (15), Ornament (15), Health (14), Delight (14), Dress (11).

Асоціати Temper (8), Agreeableness (7), Prosperity (7), Use(6), Glory(6), Growth (6), Wealth(6), Genius(6), Manner(6), Sense(6), Prudence(6), Skill(6), Cleverness(6), Mind(6), Talent(6), Gentleness(6), Taste(6), Affection(6), Gracefulness(6), Utility(6), Music (6), Fascination (6), Enthusiasm (6), Luxury (6), Maturity (6), Perfume (6), Wit (6), Force (6), Warmth (6), Subtlety (5), Happiness (5), Distinction (5), Fortune (5), Interest (5), Richness (5), Ambition (5), Accident (4), Reward (4), Innocence (2), Emotion (2), Poignance (1), Cruelty (1), Terror (1) складають дальню периферію асоціативної мережі.

Отже, концепт beautyшироко репрезентований у художньому дискурсі та характеризується розгалуженою мережею засобів вербалізації концепту beautyта асоціативним полем.

 

Список літератури

  1. Digital Library, Volume 59. Directmedia, Berlin, 2002. – 1 електрон. опт.  диск (CD-ROM): кольор.; 12 см. – Систем. вимоги: IBM PC 486 і вище; 16 Mb RAM; SVGA CD-ROM, Windows 95/98/ME/2000/NT/XP. – English and American Literature.
  2. Бехта І. А. Дискурс наратора в англомовній художній прозі / Іван Антонович Бехта. – К. : Грамота, 2004. – 304 с.
  3. Бурбело В.Б. Художній дискурс в історії французької мови та культури IX–XVIII ст.: автореф. дис. … д-ра філол. наук : спец. 02.05 “Романські мови” / Валентина Броніславівна Бурбело. – К., 1999. – 32 с.
  4. Кагановська О. М.Текстові концепти художньої прози: Когнітивна та комунікативнадинаміка (на матеріалі франц. романістики середини ХХ ст.). / ОленаМарківна Кагановська. – К.: КНЛУ, 2003. – 292 с.
  5. Комар Р.І. Авторська ремарка як засіб психологізації зображення у художньому дискурсі (на матеріалі твору Ф.С. Фіцждералда “TheGreatGatsby”) / Р.І. Комар // Дискурс іноземномовної комунікації (колективна монографія) / заг. ред. проф. К.Я. Кусько. – Львів: Видавничий центр ЛНУ ім. Івана Франка, 2002. – С. 252-261.

 

 

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