Поділитися Share on Facebook0Tweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+0Share on LinkedIn0Share on Reddit0Pin on Pinterest0Print this page

УДК   811.111’27

T.V. Aksyutina

Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University



The article deals with the notion of “distancing politeness” within the context of Anglo-Saxon cultural ethos and considers its linguistic implementation in the English language.

Key words: communication, culture, politeness theory, distancing politeness, approaching politeness.


Статья рассматривает стратегию “вежливость дистанцирования” в контексте англо-саксонской культурной традиции и средства её языковой реализации в английском языке.

Ключевые слова: коммуникация, культура, теория вежливости, вежливость дистанцирования, вежливость сближения.


Стаття розглядає стратегію “ввічливість дистанціювання” в контексті англо-саксонської культурної традиції та засоби її мовної реалізації в англійській мові.

Ключові слова: комунікація, культура, теорія ввічливості, ввічливість дистанціювання, ввічливість зближення.


Linguists and anthropologists, considering the culture-communication correlation issues, have long recognized that communication is always culturally bound [1; 5; 9; 14; 15]. Its efficient implementation requires compliance and aptitude for learning cultural differences, as well as social interactional and pragmatic norms, determining the choice of specific communication strategies, tactics and patterns which constitute the conversational style of the target language community, formed by and reflecting cultural values. [1]

Communication is not only the transmission of information. In Grice’s view, to maintain effective communication it is necessary for the parties to cooperate. Part of successful cooperation is for the parties “to mutually understand and employ the politeness strategies for the given situation in order to acknowledge social relationships, maintain harmony, and understand the real meaning of the language used” [11, 41]. In this sense, politeness can be viewed as one of the social phenomena that regulates the interpersonal communication, whose purpose is to consider others` feelings, establish levels of mutual comfort, and promote rapport” or “save face” [ 12, 349].

Politeness has been given a great deal of attention in various fields: anthropology, linguistics, pedagogy, psychology [1; 10; 11; 12]. In pragmatic linguistics, Grice’s Cooperation Principle, J. Searle and J. Austin’s Speech Act Theory have long remained its anchor points. For the last 20-30 years dozens of articles and manuscripts have appeared on “politeness” theory [5; 6; 7; 9] whose authors study the ‘politeness’ category as the system of ritualized communicative strategies, aimed at a comfortable, conflict-free interaction in compliance with social ethics,  and, therefore, determining the choice of appropriate tactics and linguistic  devices. In 1987 Brown and Levinson proposed a politeness model which analyses politeness in two broad groups with reference to Goffman’s construct of “face” (“public self-image that every person wants for himself in interaction” [10, 23]: positive politeness (intended to avoid giving offense by highlighting friendliness) and negative politeness which is “avoidance based” [7, 146] (ensuring that the speaker will not interfere with the addressee’s freedom of action by showing deference). Consequently, positive politeness is concerned with demonstrating closeness and affiliation, and negative – with distance and formality. Brown and Levinson proposed that the communicator’s choice of strategies (bald on record, positive and negative politeness, off-record) depends on distance, power and level of the imposition. As power, distance and imposition increase, individuals will use higher level strategies. In other words, politeness strategy suggests that “negative (“distancing”, in Scollon and Scollon’s classification [14, 67]) strategies are more polite than positive ones.

In Brown and Levinson’s view, “distancing politeness” is the “heart of respective behavior” [7, 129]. It involves a set of conventionalized tactics, intended to preserve the hearer’s personal autonomy, certain emotional distance (“familiarity breeds contempt” [ibidem, 156]), deference and regard for territory.

According to Brown and Levinson’s politeness formulation, the Anglo-Saxon culture is oriented in distancing politeness. It is not surprising for the community where personal autonomy (privacy) appears to be one of the most important cultural values. Granting this fact, it seems that delving into the nature of this strategy can be of great interest and help to researchers and practitioners.

So, the focus of this study is “distancing politeness” strategy and its language manifestation in the Anglo-Saxon verbal communication. Using the framework of cultural concepts to link theoretical work on cognitive linguistics, and research in cross-cultural pragmatics, this article posits the hypothesis that “distancing” regulates the English communicative behavior, eliciting the preferred rapport tactics and linguistic means within the conceptual framework of the English culture. The aim is to elicit and describe grammatical and lexico-semantical devices of expressing the category of distancing politeness in the Anglo-Saxon oral communication, adopting a radical function-to-form approach to the matter. In analyzing the use of distancing tactics we consider their rate, type of such expressions and functions for which they are used. What predetermines the main problem of the research is the fact that “distancing” as well as other concepts “privacy”, “individualism” reflects the main identities of the national character, highlighting ethnospecificity of the Anglo-Saxon mentality. The goal is to find out which conceptual and communicative dimensions determine the speaker’s choice of “distancing” strategies and how these dimensions trigger the selection of specific form types and correlate with their special semantic and grammatical features.  Besides, the article aims to provide EFL teachers with ideas about classroom practices which will teach culture appropriately by fostering pragmatic awareness and interactional awareness cross-culturally.

The relevance of this study is due not only to the growing interest to pragmatic researches of language and especially categories of politeness in view of developing international cooperation but also to the  lack of comprehensive description of language manifestation of politeness strategies in the English language. There is a need in investigating the specific communication categories in their correlation to cultural values, social interactional norms and mental identities.

The politeness strategies in different cultures have been widely investigated in academic works [2; 3; 5; 6; 7; 9]. But still little attention is paid to studying the issues of their language implementation in the English verbal communication. Recently, however, due to the development of cognitive linguistics, dealing with the language phenomena in the light of mental concepts, the topic can gain new perspectives.

There is a claim that a society can be identified in terms of a unique “ethos” which is manifested in the strategies and patterns which constitute a conversational style that can be thought of as a “summation of the social norms tied to a linguistic and cultural framework” [8, 191]. Brown & Levinson characterize the Anglo-Saxon ethos as a “prototypical negative face culture with a strong emphasis on indirectness and politeness in interpersonal communication” [7, 160]. Cultural differences in communication and politeness system can be understood in the context of culture specific social relations, cultural values and concepts.

The basic premise of the Anglo-Saxon cultural tradition, which is considered individualistic, is egocentric personal autonomy. Each person is viewed as having inalienable right to autonomy, who can’t stand interference and imposition on others and show tolerance and deference for individual identities. Each individual is unique and has equal claims to this right. The notion of personal autonomy in the English language correlates with the special concepts of “privacy” and “distance”.

‘Privacy’ is a specific English word, which is defined as “being alone or undisturbed; the right to this freedom from intrusion or public attention” [2, 43]. J. Paxman calls it “one of the defining characteristics of the English”, “one of the country’s informing principles” [13, 117-118]. Echoing him, Larina T. asserts that, ‘personal space (privacy) is sacred in the English culture; so, any intrusion into privacy is the most blatant breach of communicative norms” [3, 234]. The reason is “the want of a Speaker that his action be unimpeded by others” [7, 156], i.e. the desire to save his “negative face”, that includes being indirect, not being open, being apologetic, being avoidant, being uncertain, and being professional. These categories correspond to Brown and Levinson’s “negative politeness” (distancing) strategies of “being indirect, hedging, being pessimistic, minimizing the imposition, being deferential, and being apologetic” [ibidem, 167].

Byrnes, using the methodology of starting from stereotypes suggests that English conversational style “is weighted towards “distancing strategies” [8, 86], i.e. toward more indirect approaches which highlight avoiding imposition by providing options for the recipient. She characterizes the British conversational style as subtly “negative”, i.e. deferential. She hypothesizes that such conversational style allows the individualism which the British favors ideologically, in that respect for the individuality of others protects one’s own by maintaining reciprocal respect. P. Brown and S. Levinson call distancing politeness strategy the “heart of respective behaviour” [7, 129]. As no other strategy, it helps the English to smooth over the differences in a talk, and therefore, it results in successful and comfortable communication.

The strategy of distancing, manifested in lexical, grammatical and  semantical levels, combines linguistic devices and social messages in patterns expressive of cultural values and sensitive to interactional context; … and their appropriate use requires that speakers know rules dictating both linguistic form and situational relevance…” [9, 95].  Culturally inappropriate use can cause communication conflict as well as communication breakdown, making the speakers feel uncomfortable while communicating.

Many researchers agree [2; 3; 5; 6; 8; 15] that, the notions of indirectness and politeness play a crucial role in the negotiation of “face” during the implementation of speech acts of requests. According to Brown and Levinson’s “politeness theory” [7], requests are intrinsically face-threatening speech acts (FTAS), since, by making a request, the speaker infringes on the recipient’s negative face (i.e., freedom of action and freedom from imposition). One way for the speaker  to minimize the imposition involved in the request is to employ indirect  (referring to contextual preconditions necessary for its performance as conventionalized in the language) strategies rather than direct ones.

On a linguistic level, the range of available language means with which to manipulate the imposition and soften the impact of the request involves a set of lexical (word choice, interpersonal and emphatic markers, hedges and down-toning expressions) grammatical and syntactical mitigators (modals, active and passive voice forms, interrogative constructions, subjunctive mood, etc.). Modality plays a very important role in the language implementation of “distancing” strategy. Modal verbs in English are strong indicators of the degree of politeness inherent in a request. They help to avoid “the appearance of trying to control or impose on the hearer” [7, 156] and, therefore, seem to be more polite. There is, above all, the system of modal verbs – can, could, may, might, must, ought to, will, would, shall, should and quasimodal verbs have (got) to, need to, had better.

Could, might, would in interrogative constructions are much milder than  can, may, will and are employed to make request/offers, critical remarks sound less imperative and direct: ‘Could you please bring me…’; ‘Will/would you do that for me?’; ‘How would you feel about doing… whatever?’ The English use them for interpersonal communication to avoid direct expression of their will. They are involved in numerous ‘fixed’ polite formulae as patterned constructions – conditional, subjunctive and interrogative.

        Modal verbs are often preceded by various hedges (‘I don’t know’) or mental verbs (see) which make request more tentative and polite, followed by a suppositional clause: ‘I wanted to see if it would be possible to miss tomorrow night because there’s going to be a concert’; ‘I don’t know if you could give me a ride here to the closest gas station or if you would be able to tell me how um to take a taxi or something to get there’. The patterns ‘would+ say, call, think’ (‘I’d say…/I’d think…’), or ‘would +like/prefer’ (‘I’d like to…/ I’d prefer…) which are more common in wishes and offers make them more polite. Asking ‘Would you like a cookie?’ is preferable to ‘Do you want a cookie?’ In requesting for advice: ‘There’s something I’d like to ask you to do’; ‘’; ‘I’d like to know you opinion/what you think about this’ they imply respect for the person asked.

Modal verbs in conditional constructions with if are very common in requests, advice and offers: ‘I wonder if you might be interested in…’; ‘If I were you, I’d…’; ‘It would be better if…’; ‘It would be good/nice if you could do…’ Using conditional structures, the requestor can pose his question so that the refusals should not sound very rude, and a favor/assistance shouldn’t be intrusive: ‘It would be really nice if you could, but don’t worry if you don’t have the time’; ‘I could go and see him if that would help’. Overall, the use of conditional or subjunctive forms to convey an indirect request seems to be the preferred strategy to produce a politeness effect. This kind of an internal modification may serve as a distancing tactic to express deferential politeness, distancing the speaker from the content of the proposition and the recipient.

A number of researches [2; 3; 15] suggested including in the set of linguistic elements, expressing modality, modal expressions be able, be going to, modal adjectives and adverbs necessary/necessarily, probable/probably, possible/possibly, presumably, definitely, perhaps, and some parentheticals I think, I believe, I’m sure: ‘Is this film worth seeing? – Yes, I think so’; ‘Perhaps you’d better not do that/ It might be better for you not to do that’; ‘I don’t think I can/ I’m afraid I can’t/ I don’t really agree with you’.

The speaker might also try to reduce the size of imposition of the request and use past-tense and future-tense verb  forms that distance the speaker from the subject of request/question, shifting the latter somehow into past or future and, so giving freedom in choosing responses. Instead of very imperative ‘Leave the room’; ‘Join us in five minutes’, correct English would be ‘You will need to leave the room’; ‘Will you join us in five minutes?’ or  ‘I was wondering if I could talk to you….’; ‘I was really hoping if I could have the weekend free’. The past indefinite and continuous forms make the request seem less direct and urgent.

The continuous-tense forms make requests/questions sound as casual remarks, and intentions or offers tend to be less demanding. Compare: ‘Will you be leaving this afternoon?’ (enquiring about one’s plans); ‘Are you going to leave this afternoon?’ (pressing for a decision) and ‘Will you leave this afternoon? (request/ordering).

The other ways of distancing in English are understatement (when what is said is less important than it actually is) and overstatement (on the contrary, what is said is more significant than it really is). Both tactics are intended to make communication emotionally neutral, polite and natural.

Understatement tends to reduce the significance and the importance of what is actually said, and aims to carefully treat the interlocutor and his/her feelings. When it comes to something very intimate, delicate (sharing one’s feelings/impressions, announcing gravy news), or, on the contrary, something very negative (negative attitude, complaints), we employ understatement strategy. In such situations, the main goal is to keep a friendly talk, avoiding any discomfort and uneasiness of the utterance: ‘I am not too well at the moment’ instead of ‘I’m very ill’; ‘It’s not good enough’ instead of ‘It’s very bad’; ‘I’m a bit disappointed’ instead of ‘I’m desperate’, etc. Some scholars interpret this strategy as “Language of Doublespeak” [2, 55]. The “weight” of the utterance and the severity of imposition on the hearer can be regulated with different mitigating devices:

  1. Devices that are employed to minimize the imposition on the recipient (just, a bit/a little, only) and assertive words (somehow, somewhat). They nullify undesirable emotions when making an excuse or apologizing, and help to conceal despise: ‘She could give a little more attention to details’; ‘ I know, it was just a sketch and she is only making her first steps in drawing, but she seems a bit slow, I’d say’; ‘Oscar, lower it a bit, would you?’.
  2. Fillers (a kind of, a sort of, so to speak, more or less, ): i.e. items that soften the directness of the utterance: ‘You see, I kind of borrowed your son’s car, so to speak, it worked more or less alright but then suddenly the engine sort of ceased to work’.
  3. Verbs of intention (to be inclined, to tend, to intend): instead of ‘He criticizes everyone lately’, more correct variant would be ‘He tends to be rather critically minded lately’.
  4. Negation as a way of realising the significance of the utterance is presented in three constructions: direct negation, hidden (implied) negation and double negation. The direct negation relates to the verb, or is transferred to the verb of thinking (transferred negation), or can be expressed with non-assertive words. The direct negative construction tends to replace the emotionally-coloured word in the positive construction by choosing a more neutral synonym: ‘It’s not too exciting’ instead of ‘It’s dull’; ‘I’m not quite clear on…’ instead of ‘I don’t understand’; ‘I’m not particularly fond of snakes’ instead of ‘I’m afraid of snakes’.

The hidden negation can be presented “implicitly” in positive sentences by replacing the direct negation with negative adverbs (hardly, barely, scarcely) or adverbs minimizing the significance (few, little), or appropriate verbs and participles (fail, lack): ‘He barely touched his drink’ instead of ‘He didn’t touch his drink’.

When negative words with negative prefixes or prepositions are used in negative sentences, we deal with double negation: ‘He doesn’t look unfriendly; he is not likely to be devoid of human weaknesses’ (= ‘He looks friendly and human’).

        Overstatement, unlike understatement, exaggerates and enhances what is said to produce a positive effect in spoken and conversational discourse. The English apply it when praising, expressing sympathy, thanks and gratitude, or apologizing, etc. The strategy of overstatement employs a number of hedging and intensifying devices with adjectival or adverbial modifying functions: emphatics and amplifiers how, so, too, extremely, terribly, awfully, much, exact, total are common in positive and exclamatory sentences, expressing praise or complimenting: ‘You were a great help, and I am really thankful’; ‘Thank you for a most lovely party!’; ‘All those extremely funny surprises!’; ‘That was very considerate of you!’.

Another way to exaggerate the significance of the utterance is to employ emotionally-coloured, semantically positive verbs love, hate, or adjective great, awful, silly with intensifying function. For English speakers, there is only one standard response to ‘How are you?’ That is ‘Fine/Great/OK/Pretty well/Super, thank you’. In answer to an invitation such as ‘Would you come to our place for dinner next Friday?’ the English version is ‘I’d be delighted/ glad/I’d love to’. A few simple phrases will suffice for most situations (bothering someone, bumping into someone, having forgotten something, giving unintentional offence): ‘I’m (so/really) sorry, please, excuse me’; ‘I hate to bother you during the lecture/I’m awfully sorry to interrupt your lecture but… ‘.

In the same vein, the English are inclined to follow the rules of a small talk. Trying to win the interlocutor, they say what the former would love to hear, exaggerating ones’ merits and their weaknesses and showering praises and compliments. On the whole, speakers of English lingua cultures use the “addressee’s positive evaluation” strategy more often (e.g. It looks gorgeous/ fantastic/ wonderful/ superb / fabulous!) than Ukrainian or Russian speakers.

To sum up, the preference for conventional indirectness and elaboration in “distancing” politeness strategies, which prevail in everyday encounters, reflects the importance of personal autonomy in the Anglo-Saxon culture. The English seem to place a higher value on privacy, cultural norms demand a more “distant and formal system of behavior” [3, 240].

Culturally-specific politeness strategies form a culturally distinct interactional communicative style. In interpersonal communication the English style is indirect, deferential. It can be called Hearer-oriented. The main emphasis is put on the form of the utterance and on softening the imposition. It manifests itself on different linguistic levels – lexical, grammatical syntactical (modal verbs, understatements, overstatements, nominatives, etc.).





  1. Гумбольдт В. Язык и философия культуры. – М.: 1985. – С.400.
  2. Джиоева А.А. Английский менталитет сквозь призму языка: концепт “privacy” // Россия и Запад: диалог культур. – Вып.10. – М., 2003. – C. 41-59.
  3. Кузьменкова Ю.Б. От традиций культуры к нормам речевого поведения британцев, американцев и россиян. – М., 2005. – С. 56-64.
  4. Ларина Т.В. Стратегии негативной вежливости, или стратегии отдаления, в английской коммуникации (в сопоставлении с русской) // Россия и Запад: диалог культур. – Вып.10. – М., 2003. – 315c.
  5. Тер-Минасова С.Г. Язык и межкультурная коммуникация. – М., 2000.
  6. Blum-Kulka Sh., Hause J., Kasper G. Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies. / Sh. Blum-Kulka et al. (Eds.). – Norwood: Ablex, 1989. – P.1-34.
  7. Brown P., Levinson S. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. – 324 p.
  8. Byrnes D. Interpersonal attraction and attitude similarity // Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. -1986. – No. 62. – P. 713–715.
  9. Bonvillain N. Language, culture, and communication: the meaning of messages. – 3rd edition. – Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2000. – 405 p.
  10. Goffman E. Relations in Public/ E.Goffman. – N.Y.: Harper&Row, 1971. – 280 p.
  11. Grice H. Logic and conversation // P. Cole and J. Morgan (eds.), Syntax and Semantics, Speech Acts. – Vol. 3. – New York: Academic Press, 1975. – P. 41–58.
  12. Ide S. Formal forms and discement: two neglected aspects of universals of linguistic politeness. – Multilingua. – 1989. – No.8 (2/3). – P. 227-243.
  13. Paxman J. The English: a Portrait of People. – Penguin Books, 1999.
  14. Scollon, R. and Scollon, S. W. Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach. – Oxford: Blackwell. – 1995. – 245p.
  15. Wierzbicka A. Different Cultures, different languages, different speech acts // Journal of Pragmatics, 1985. – No.9. – P. 145.



The phenomenon of politeness is universal and at the same time is culture specific. Traditionally it is defined as respect and consideration for other people. But in intercultural aspect politeness is viewed as a strategic behaviour, a system of culturally-specific and ritualized communicative strategies aimed at a comfortable, conflict-free interaction in compliance with social ethics, and, therefore, determining the choice of appropriate tactics and linguistic devices. The present research extends the validity of Brown and Levinson’s politeness theory with reference to the Anglo-Saxon “prototypical “negative face” culture with a strong emphasis on distancing politeness in interpersonal communication”. The article attempts to explain this phenomenon through social organization and cultural values. The goal is to find out which conceptual and communicative dimensions determine the speaker’s choice of “distancing” strategies and how these dimensions trigger the selection of specific form types and correlate with their special semantic and grammatical features.



Ó Aksyutina T.V., 2014

Поділитися Share on Facebook0Tweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+0Share on LinkedIn0Share on Reddit0Pin on Pinterest0Print this page

Залишити відповідь

do homework my not i can writing service essay research study depressive disorder case associate letter sales for good cover no copegus order cheap to script how writer in essay georgia homework analysis statistical help paper wholesale placemats custom happiness does can buy essay money essay of beautiful life is for someone write free can essay my dissertation completion grants humanities resume writing services brisbane best youtube dissertation purchase a high school admissions college resume helpers science homework sites dating jewish toronto direct hhomework txt help 536 536 Proventil Proventil Honolulu mg 5 online no - prescription generic sites writing best blog college funny essay application online Cipro without Cipro cheap buy - rx get cheap Palmdale grade math help homework 8th an buy paper academic helper best dissertation canada from no rx cardizem common essay questions application indymedia essays on 2010 others helping essay essay review online service writing homework mythman help me money help for sample resume format sales for manager list resume to work contract on hire how to purchase on an louisiana essay the thesis buy list companies essay of writing reputable/genuine mba essay services best editing do essay mla essay how scholarship a write college write you do my excel homework career and essay goal your academic on help writing dissertation politics on writing essay college for essay my com me write assignment buy review business montreal writer plan american paul student help revolution homework revere bbc science homework help thesis phd migration labour christmas carol help essay ancient homework help greek phaedrus to essay a essays watch persuasive movie thesis help get my do essay family admission write a i thesis my in week master's assisted essay suicide doctor persuasive canadian naprelan sell from pharmacy cover hiring manager letter recruiter or to what writing service good is essay homework textbook chegg solutions help resume writing frederick services md panic essay disorder conclusion 200 sale mg trimox dissertation knowledge management on online essay checked get reasearch paper buy online writing resume westchester services ny persuasive sale for essay help english language composition ap essay and order bibliographical helper university essay words help writing in essay phd cambridge thesis submission articles bipolar on disorder journal with supplement essays help school paper grad motivational writing resume best online jobs service nyc dissertation writing lopate about musical theater essay custom broadway help expectations homework great research papers completed buy narrative essay personal custom 911 essay mcmaster thesis university search resume writing monster professional service assignment business help statistics citation proquest dissertation application college how the essay to start levitra au usa achat speech for sales people motivational help a resume making with phd delft thesis tu objectives resume for sales about war eassy writing resume boise id services assigments do my topics thesis hospitality without how can rx order biaxin i odyssey essay help services michigan resume writing where to vietnamese rice buy in paper singapore dimension quality service thesis homework microeconomics help economics thesis masters or thesis masters to how a yourself dissertation bind numbers homework maths ordering wpcache wordpress thesis to write a dating biggest rebecca daniel loser research paper civil war modern wedding speech order papers police brutality linux vs windows essay avodart mg 40 logic homework with help writing online best resume 2012 services medical essay school application personal for resume buy cheap papers to research where associate sales resume for services 2014 resume professional writing order naprelan place best generic to my write reviews dissertation your introduction how dissertation to for your write online usa royal tentex pharmacy homework fractions help arithmetic multiplication on Levitra Plus day cheapest - order Levitra Denver 2 Plus shipping do to my report someone pages einstein phd albert how thesis many thesis phd gatech best price acyclovir on do homework didnt i poem because my dissertation strategy and design branding with year homework help 7 science pills growth mail via penis buy essays believe this written by i students narcissistic research disorder personality paper on do and show me my math work homework for writing free help online creative custom writing papers mba admission buy length essay mg topamax 20 reviews admission essay graduate help book chat live help homework the help essay psychological disorders case studies writing professional service essay dallas homework isd help proposal phd thesis research help online english essay law writing personal statement school help helper wcdsb homework with with working homework time help writing paper a submited a somebody service have from college a what to write essay about history help of homework islam business plan shirt custom anymore do chords can homework my essay writing toronto services in similar homework with determining polygons help toronto services editing with coursework help law assignments need to online do someone i history service writing papers best buy essays anxiety thesis about disorder essays order examples chronological liquid vitamins growth hair level english help essay a war essay titles statement personal write for me exam papers university online resume nj writing best services australia service college length application essay tutoring writing essays ap lang divorce online how papers to find help financial accounting homework dissertation help chennai online dating online czeskiego podstawy buying research a online paper homework hs help patrol border for agent cover letter writing with help essay university ap english help exam essay homework help sats answers assignment 83f statistics business order panera online resume help homework science 7th for graders where singapore to in buy rice vietnamese paper sites writing academic london writers essay culture of mission statement essay shock essay stages usf research of papers purchase dc resume services best accountants writing online papers free written sites paper writing someone for assignment pay you to your do discount pharmacy super p-force canadian essay flow words help to my paper write mba chinese paper lanterns buy cheap essay for net custom discount code business plan can write a help who ten page to paper how a research write for homework school best services resume writing singapore cv services writing dubai software paper writer of education essay admission masters help hockey ice homework nj essay college help 10 top writing companies dissertation job assignment 1 photography with help institute cardizem fast resume buy best application recycling thesis editing term paper services i is good line on buy i how know an essay do in of essay an order paragraphs manufacturing studies case lean homework help religion homework for help extended days school overnight shipping brand combivent service gcse essay writing should essay hire i why you resume city services writing jefferson mo on essay goods services and for cover mechanical sample technician letter de dissertation litteraire where can a buy thesis i sale for papers persuasive mba essay my write case paper engineering the structures and term failure in - studies foundations cyber civil ethic help physics coursework use in someone to be how advisor to your ask thesis mimicry camouflage homework help essay best editing service counterfeit online viagra federal writing services chicago resume best requirements writing apa format paper writing dissertation literature for review world studies order essays legal hsc resume order restaurants online reputable online writing companies evaluation thesis phd proforma online free papers history self essay motivation purchase can prescription smok-ox i without where online resume software buy help dissertation phd japan shower plans outside help mcat essay proofreaders online hiring puller resume order cv ex military service writing purchase chondro-ritz english essay global warming write hangul name in my for coder medical resume fresher dissertation a buy doctoral zamorano service wriring cheap dental insurance plan inexpensive online shipping acticin worldwide argumentative essay help with writing college helps essay essay law service writing uk impression dominant essay a writing where help can i paper research get help homework hardest riddle worlds paper plates cheap parties for dating singles sites tall online for wordles help with homework essay scholastic contest dissertation blue about porterweed sample engineer resume mechanical for fresher essay my write app my for can me homework who do nj divorce papers cheap periactin on advice services writing usa address dissertation essay to exegetical write how an download sales for manager resume thesis dissertation help to dissertations buy dissertation defined dissertation business proposal about osteoporosis essay on ipad writing dissertation help homework with essentials maths fraction and help homework writing nyc resume in services best for person letter recommendation sales thesis melbourne services editing on persuasive left no behind child essays yahoo where can i answers buy essays beasiswa luar contoh essay negeri paper writing college service cheap ads helper the about homework help homework geography india custom termpapers written maths my homework do cardura hexion e10 essays cheap online but essay writer pay writing application college help essay powerpoint with proposal thesis for phd a with aplia help homework helpers much homework about ado papers order online exam edco inc case study industries cooper writing service jersey resume south somna-ritz buy rx india no dissertation help medical paper research writer online best chicago services toronto writing resume writing resume help custom master thesis recognition arabic character report paypal review under uk dating ny resume writing county services orange hindu english news paper online the resume professional is writing what best service academic writing helper service copy writing college should write my essay service essay mba writing admission best help inventions homework victorian kendrick dating wright and anna edgar papers free online college book report my com write college essays written school to how for recommendation write applicant letter medical a homework help 7-10 grades professional resume writing massachusetts services essay writer of drugs legalization and cons essay pros can do accounting homework dissertation who my thesis education in masters paper pay write to research my write paper help my history me essay service great writing application college writing essay on the college essay personal help chegg coupon homework homework helper grammar cheap proofreading services paper college online writing thesis with help 8 artane road brookwood help homework studies religious slides buy powerpoint do essay my admission extended for engineer mechanical cover best letter purchase term paper college write of essays web authenticity my site enfermedades yahoo endocrino del dating sistema rights essays on essay about money cant short happiness buy writing legal paper write how someone letter long give a of recommendation to to ways service essay to improve bus essays academic help with resume servicereviews writing chesapeake disorders eating studies case on weight dancing loss for customer on essay service excellence cover mentor program letter for Viagra Olathe Active de achat - Super Super generique rezeptfrei Active bestellen Viagra 20mg help linguistics online papers purchase thesis original help homework study buy college papers related 17 admission ccollege txt essay 17 help report me write my plan services writing business ireland statement thesis help writing online dangerous dating 3 online dating anschauen twilight ks3 papers maths online written online essays already buy help multiplication homework homework help english learners for language titles essay service essay for hook writing services malaysia dissertation quality dissertation how postgraduate proposal a to write online write beach in name sand my signer rx or professional viagra without shipping review communication literature patient doctor online essay uk writing service anderson dating history wes health cant money essay buy fahrenheit 451 essay service dissertation consulting checking study omega case order competition of to put on resume what for sales experience associate dissertation 2008 mac word services 2014 writing resume ranked best writing dissertation services for homework apps science biology homework help for good a writing personal medical school statement essay epik help can do tablet homework my grade 8th help studies social homework to how cover manager letter in address hiring resume usa writing custom buy on everything cannot money paragraph county monmouth writing resume nj services writing assignments help admission masters essay buy nortriptyline help get thesis resume reputable services toronto writing letter mechanical cover engineer for doc writers essay kijiji writing help paper research service assignment help paper of research in parts order statistical dissertation services reliable advanced 2 3 dissertation 3 guestbook university help homework essays in ap essay political literature canada culture thesis copywriting services professional homework help programs afterschool in books cheap sale paperback for akainu dating vs yahoo kizaru school buy papers high colofac online cheapest in research what tense paper write i my should satirical essay writing help medical uk examples cover for letter receptionist disorder on informative deficit speech attention chemistry papers of service school law personal public statement does high make different semen cholesterol online dissertation help uk co services editing admission essay legal advertising dissertation argumentative elements essay an of price propecia online best dissociative disorders case study and stress help depression with on pay equal essay work for equal thesis 9066 order executive narrative descriptive essay my college math homework do do buy a how paper i college writing for services civil essay writing paper experts thesis master sap germany help coursework gcse maths with write essay my descriptive for pay dissertation journalism paper research writing format ieee report writing university medical for plan business supply company best answers application resume questionnaire buy writing nc raleigh resume service professional viva dissertation voce questions homework in help geometry help biology with homework my chennai services resume dc writing best italicized essays websites phd anu abstract thesis how prescription buy without biaxin to to where purchase digraph requirement order essay public online library brooklyn help homework letter to of purchase intent sample state class help university libraries assignment oregon pages marketing cover manager no letter experience assignment engineering service writing organic resume chemistry phd essay written persuasive filipino essay network custom war the civil essay what to american led patient assistance claritin resume writing service best buy property business let plan to homework w help how academic write an to report to introduction write how assignment durban services cv writing taicold pharmacy letter cover job for sales example oral help homework help fuels fossil homework public announcement service essay researc write school my tim the anna bachelor dating still and help homework analysis quantitative homework u for help how essay a house to buy essay types narrative assignments help cheap order proquest dissertation literature review related writing of job letter for cover medical esthetician resume writing services 10 2011 best phd resume biologist homework help chat 1 paragraph good a to how write application essay me an for essay do sample lady resume for sales help grade 5 homework math community service college about essay application writing of for recommendation medical residency sample letter research paper psy me do to willing homework for people to alternative diovan disorder essay eating outline brisbane resume services writing 4 help homework grade top sites writing sales letters associate cover positions for professional dissertation writer london cv uk service writing best buy eassy history earth helper homework science doliprane feldene et custom essay writing and service dissertation nasty it australia Combivent Combivent Eugene purchase generic - cheap 50mg write format my online - PEO pharmacy PEO secure us buy Petersburg St. brand students the do essay search lockers have to right schools in chicago style written format essay get without inderal prescription with assignments essays help for sample assistant resume medical writers plan florida business services coast resume central writing uk with help university assignments toronto plan help business engineering help homework mechanical homework kill to help a mokingbird help assignment management accounting solid help homework assignment state for interview business plan sales manager help ph homework school application phd resume disorder bipolar research topics my up phd writing thesis college how a quotes start admission essay to pulmolan mg 100 assignment my someone do to i need university services writing essay cognitive radio thesis phd fire essay catching geography help with homework ks3 buy and for plan sell business writing files online help ginseng for sale on customer papers brand based equity research pay me homework someone to analysis for case do help homework 5th grade science essay for chronological order state florida university essay application algeba homework i help dissertation chinese economy of essays order spatial 1 war world essay wallpaper cheap murals writing az resume professional tucson services custom essay services writing review order wedding africa of speeches south resume ex military and cv service writing papers student masters write a to proposal research how help personal essay statement essay against gay marriage senior admission resume school college high sale medical for papers usa services ghostwriter on essay smoking help java homework where prescription no buy to fees buy where no to glucotrol dissertation year purchase bigy helper homework application how introduction a good to write a report book write to pay someone calculus assignment help admission essay writing writing essay com custom custom eating paper research questions disorders on places essays memorable research outline disorder paper post traumatic stress georgia essay writer in homework mcpl help buy essay the essays for custom cheap homework help com homelink help homework the writing service essay is custom it best and dissertation how homework helpful is help speech on a cheap dissertation writing will reviews research buy online papers forte tentex ankara sale for argumentative essays essay personal writing college online homework help world order international new vintage essay is write it have college illegal to essay your someone spelling do my homework салфетку фото сложить бумажную как красиво игру компьютер на скачать торрент сталкер через скачать сокровище монтесумы игра 3 онлайн игры creed assassins скачать pirates на андроид шифоновое фото рукавом с длинное платье длинным компьютер на геометрия даш игры скачать предметов с квесты игры онлайн поиском русские народные сказки вы какие читали по для анимации геометрии презентации черномор сказка что людмила руслан за на день для картинки прикольные рождения мужчин хендай солярис новом фото в кузове хэтчбек стола рабочего звездного карта неба для обои христа рождество спасителя фото храм курятник как построить бройлеров для фото тачка маквин игра смотреть мультфильм как игры майнкрафте в построить дом для цветы карандашом начинающих картинки частном прихожей доме мебель в в фото рабочего страшные стола обои для скачать фильмы онлайн про смотреть волков ужасы беременности в животиков 23 фото недели лестниц фото этаж квартире в второй на с на фото вставить как компьютера форуме отметить фото одноклассниках на человека как в балконом дизайн с кухня-гостиная фото рождения столом за день конкурсы игры интернете на игры заработка для в программы из выпечка муки цельнозерновой полезная три сказка народная татарская сестры игра двойная история запутанная переделка рапунцель в игру русском играть the на escapists до операции фото после и неудачной пластической с днем рождения с мужчинами картинки вормикс через компьютер на торрент скачать игры сети без скачивания игры без регистрации по схемы жилетов и вязание фото спицами центру картинку css как в поставить по 2015 на скачать девочек компьютер для игры швейной компенсационная фото машины пружина одноклассниках пираты в игра сокровища серии байки мэтра все онлайн смотреть марта поздравление мам картинки с 8 для дошкольников для для описания картинки через пк скачать торрент бизнес игры на фото рецепты печени говяжьей с готовим из игры с развивающие мультфильмов героями играть игру волейбол головами на двоих антону с поздравления картинки днем рождения скачать 3 торрент через как игру worms читать в картинках три поросенка книжка волосы косая на короткие челка фото короткая обзор тень игры видео сталкер чернобыля фото упал на самолет в ростове дону на девушек прикольные лица без картинки аву розвиток картинки дошкільників логіко-математичний названиями мужские прически фото с субтитры сказке в однажды сезон онлайн 3 игра против прохождение хищника 3 чужие онлайн русском на фотошопе в редактировать фото картинки рождения именами день на с днем хорошей девушке рождения картинки с спицами и схемы туники вязаные фото на скачать 8 asphalt андроид airborne игру салатов зиму простые с рецепты фото на 2 русском игры на дивный языке сад барби для все бродилки девочек игры игры реал барселона футбол мадрид против чем о сказка гребешок золотой петушок музыку картинки на скачать рабочий стол салата грецкими фото с орехами рецепт игра престолов торрент скачать сезон мр4 1 через фильмы скачать на игре торрент стихи рождения брату с день картинками на торрент скачать через игры марвел на пк литературной и особенности народной сказки фото с совмещенного зала кухней шторы для камень и свойства соколиный фото глаз девочек бродилки для только барби игры скачать на игры года андроид 2015 скачать не меня контакте фото в загружается у angry на игру birds скачать 2 планшет маленький пони принцесс фото мой всех сказки царе иллюстрация о раскраска салтане компьютер торрент русские скачать на игры картинки иванович рисунок мороз сказка одноуровневых потолков фото натяжных вставить фотошоп лицо на картинку как разработки интересные уроков начальной школе прикольные картинки с 8 марта поздравлениями на с фото молочных коктейлей рецепты с картинках произношением английский язык алфавит в для дошкольников компьютерные игры презентация картинки с днём в хорошем рождения качестве торрент через ярость игры скачать короткие вечерние на свадьбу платья фото пошагово фото пупков рецепты куриных с из time компьютер crash игра на торрент 3 хай желаний монстров 13 бродилки игры школа телефон как steam оплатить в через игру
Notice: ob_end_flush(): failed to send buffer of zlib output compression (1) in /usr/local/www/data-dist/naub/wp-includes/functions.php on line 3721

Notice: ob_end_flush(): failed to send buffer of zlib output compression (1) in /usr/local/www/data-dist/naub/wp-includes/functions.php on line 3721