DETERRENT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY PARKS IN UKRAINE

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У статті досліджено функціонування технологічних парків в Україні, виокремлено ряд чинників, які стримують їх  розвиток, що також впливає на стан інноваційної сфери в Україні в цілому.

Ключові слова: технологічні парки (технопарк), інноваційна діяльність, проект.

 In the article we investigate the functioning of technology parks in Ukraine, determined several factors that hinder their development and affect the state of innovation sphere in Ukraine.

Keywords: technology park (tech park), innovative activity, project.

Problem setting. Today, all over the world extremely cost-effective organizational form is the industrial parks – territorial-production and scientific system which can be described as a process of integration of production and science. These institutions are areas of economic activity, combining the potential of universities, scientifically research structures, industrial and infrastructure organizations. In their work they are based on the results of scientific and technological research and have extensive relationships with industrial enterprises, research institutions at the national level as well as at the regional and international levels.

Therefore, the relevance of this research is to determine the effectiveness of technology parks, analyzing their activities and distinguish factors that inhibit the development of technology parks in Ukraine.

Last scientific researches and publications analysis. The issue of development of technology parks was researched by quite a large number of scientists and economists. In particular, I. Antipov analyzed the impact of technology parks in the development of innovation, A. Shishkin covered basic problems of Ukrainian parks, A. Prodius, V. Adamchuk determined the nature and purpose of technology parks. The activity of technology parks in the Ukraine and the factors that inhibit their development require a separate study.

Formulation of the article’s purpose. The purpose of this article is identifying the main barriers meet on the way of the development of technology parks in Ukraine.

The statement of basic material of research. The main elements of innovation infrastructure in the developed countries are kind of centers of acceleration of innovation processes are technology parks. Combining the mutual interests of consumers and innovation led to a rapid increase in the number of countries growing rapidly – Japan, China and India [2]. With the understanding of the important role of technology parks in these countries at the national level they take care about the introduction of special regimes promote parks. These are tax and customs exemptions, loans on favorable terms, earmarking some innovation, state orders for innovative products, etc. In the presence of such state support technology parks provide job creation, the development of highly profitable businesses and content of national markets science intensive technology products. In addition, the presence of a competitive industrial parks contribute to these countries on the global markets for goods and services. [5]

In Ukraine market of R & D products is forming so requires special attention. There are several factors that inhibit the development of technology parks in Ukraine. Let’s begin with examining the activity of parks. The formation of this system in Ukraine began in 2000 recording of technology parks as the Institute of single crystals and the Institute of Electric Welding Institute named. Later appeared: 2001 – Vuglemash; 2002 – Semiconductors, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Ukrinfoteh; 2003 – Kyiv Polytechnic and Intelligent Information Technologies and others.

One of the major barriers is unregulated legal and regulatory framework, which is constantly trying to organize, but constantly making changes only to the legal regulations, not laws that only brings disbalance to the plan of projects. The main provisions of the establishment and functioning of the Ukrainian technology parks is Law of Ukraine “On science parks» № 1563-VI of 25.06.2009 [1].

At present, according to the Law of Ukraine “On Special Regime of Innovation Activity technology parks” created 16 technology parks (see Tab. 1.1.).

Table 1.1.

Technological Parks of Ukraine from 2000 to 2012

#

Technological Parks

Date of registration

Sales volume, mln. uah.

1

“Semiconductor technologies and materials, optoelectronics and sensor technology” (Kyiv)

June of 2001

495,2

2

“Institute of Electric under the name of  E. Paton “(Kyiv)

July of 2000

8535,4

3

“Institute for Single Crystals” (Kharkiv)

July of 2000

3456

4

“Vuglemash” (Donetsk)

Nvember of 2001

146,3

5

“Institute of Engineering Thermophysics” (Kyiv)

September of 2002

5

6

“Kyiv Polytechnic” (Kyiv)

June 2003

30

7

“Intelligent Information Technologies” (Kyiv)

December of 2003

8

“Ukrinfotekh” (Kyiv)

November of 2002

14

9

“Agrotechpark” (Kyiv) October of  2007

10

“Eco-Ukraine” (Donetsk)

11

“Research and teaching apparatus” (Sumy)

12

“Textile” (Kherson)

December of 2007

13

“Resources of Donbass” (Donetsk)

14

“Ukrainian center of microbiological synthesis and new technologies” (Odessa)

15

“Iavoriv” (Lviv region)

August of  2007

1

16

“Machinery Technology” (Dnepropetrovsk)

November of 2008

Total

TechnologyPark, which implemented products

2000-2012

12681,9

* Source: [5].

Observe that the from 16 technology parks (4 of them are still registered) operates only half, but the bulk of sales accounted for only 4 industrial parks – Institute of Electric Welding Institute under the name of Paton in Kiev, Institute for Single Crystals in Kharkov, Semiconductor technology and materials, optoelectronics and sensor technology in Kiev and Vuglemash in Donetsk . This is because the technology parks have scant support from the state, although by the legislation was approved to allocate to the question of science and innovation 1.7% of GDP, but for many years actually emit only 0.3% of GDP. Another problem is the use by domestic enterprises, banks, government agencies foreign unlicensed softwares, technologies, materials and equipment in connection with low creditworthiness and lack of interest in supporting domestic producers, which results in low demand for innovative products in the country.

Implemented in Ukraine model of “industrial park without walls’ or in international terminology a” virtual industrial park “according to leading experts in international economic and financial institutions (the World Bank to the Economic Commission of Europe) consistent with contemporary trends in parks. High economic efficiency of this model allows to provide indicators ​​that exceed those of traditional technology parks: the U.S. government is actively supporting innovation in the country both by creating enabling legislation and direct funding from the budget, but this support is not disinterested. President Obama demands that for every dollar of support to the state budget returned $ 2. InUkraine, for the period of 2001-2011 years tech parks support from the state amounted to 510 million UAH. The budget was disbursed to 1026 million UAH., that just over 2 UAH for 1 UAH of state support (in Tech park “Institute of Electric under the name of Paton” the figure was 4.41 UAH) [5].

Almost all projects meet established technological parks legally approved innovative needs of the specific parks. These projects include, as a rule, all stages of the cycle of innovation – from applied research and development to production and release of innovative products to market. Projects are required degree of patent protection in the countries which are potential consumers of these products. As an example, a number of projects implemented by leading Technological parks Ukraine: modern medical gamma camera and test system (“Institute for Single Crystals” (Kharkiv)), automatic welding armor hull of the T-34, high-frequency welding of soft tissues of the human body (Institute of Electric under the name of Paton (Kyiv)) [5]. Inventions Ukrainian tech parks are well-known on the world stage, they are winners of international tenders (Technopark Institute of Electric under the name of Paton won the tender to supply equipment for the renovate of the railway network in China, Brazil, USA), creating more than 3 thousand jobs, enhance research and innovation capacity of the country.

As noted above the first important factor is the low interest of the state in innovation and scientific development – it’s evident lack of funding and irregular legal and regulatory framework. Other subjects that do not support domestic inventions are companies, banks, government agencies, they prefer foreign unlicensed software products, technology, materials and equipment, which are not use overseas and they have an opportunity to buy it cheaper. In recent years the issue of desire of foreign investors to use the scientific potential of Ukrainian technology parks for their own commercial purposes has gained urgency. It could be proved by focusing of technology parks on foreign customers, attracting foreign capital for development and possible future operation, it appears particularly acute in the IT market since Ukraine is the first by the number of freelancers who are focused only on the international market.

Conclusion. We observe that the techno parks – is an effective and an important factor in shaping the innovation environment of the state, they have a positive effect on economic growth, provide new jobs, putting Ukraine on the international market of innovation, support and enhance the scientific potential of the country, selling products that are competitive on the world market, but there are several factors that significantly constrain the activities of technology parks: low level of funding, lack of support from domestic production enterprises and other organizations, the need to attract foreign investors and to focus on the foreign consumer. There is a need for a stable legal and regulatory framework which is a perfect mechanism of tech parks, provide transparency of the work. Another necessity is shortening the review and registration of innovative and investment projects.

 

REFERENCES

  1. Закон України «Про наукові парки» № 1563 − VI від 25.06.2009 ‑  Eлектронний ресурс]. ‑  Режим доступу: http://zakon1.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1563−17/print13002 63470318111 ‑ Заголовок з екрану.
  2. Антипов І. В. Інноваційний розвиток національної економіки в контексті створення інноваційних інфраструктур в освітній галузі // Збірник наукових праць Донецького державного університету управління. – 2010. – Випуск 148. – С. 1-8.
  3. Продіус О. І. Інноваційний розвиток промисловості: реалії та перспективи // Вісник Хмельницького національного університету. – 2010. – №1, T. 1. – С. 106-109.
  4. Чухрай Н. І. Інноваційний розвиток України: основні бар’єри та напрями їх подолання // Вісник Національного університету “Львівська політехніка”. – 2008. – №633. – С. 761-766.
  5. Державне агентство з питань науки, інновацій та інформатизації України. ‑ [Електронний ресурс] ‑ Режим доступу: http://dknii.gov.ua/  − Заголовок з екрану.
  6. Тельнов А.С. В.В. Гончарук. Технологічні парки: проблеми та перспективи розвитку: [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://nbuv.gov.ua/portal/Soc_Gum/Vchnu_ekon/2010_1_2/035−041.pdf

 

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