COGNITIVE SEMANTICS OF THE NAMES OF CHINESE DISHES: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

Поділитися Share on Facebook0Tweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+0Share on LinkedIn0Share on Reddit0Pin on Pinterest0Print this page

УДК 811.111

Zhang Y.

V.N. KarazinKharkiv National University

 

COGNITIVE SEMANTICS OF THE NAMES
OF CHINESE DISHES: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

           

This article brings to light cognitive mechanisms involved into the process of forming the names of Chinese dishes and draws parallels with English. Varieties of conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and metaphtonymies are specified, which are characteristic of the linguistic units under study.

            Key words: cognitive mechanisms; cognitive metaphor, metonymy, and metaphtonymy; names of Chinese dishes

 

            Жанг И. Когнітивні механізми утворення назв китайських страв. У статті розглядаються когнітивні механізми, задіяні у процесі формування назв китайських страв; наводяться паралелі з англійською мовою. Виявлено притаманні цим одиницям різновиди концептуальних метафор, метонімій та метафтонімій. 

            Ключові слова: когнітивні механізми; когнітивна метафора, метонімія та метафтонімія; назви китайських страв

 

            Жанг И. Когнитивные механизмы образования названий китайских блюд.В статье рассматриваются когнитивные механизмы, задействованные в процессе формирования названий блюд китайской кухни; проводятся параллели с английским языком. Выявлены характерные для этих единиц разновидности концептуальных метафор, метонимий и метафтонимий.

            Ключевые слова: когнитивные механизмы; когнитивная метафора, метонимия, метафтонимия; названия блюд китайской кухни.

 

China is a country with a long history of ritual and etiquette, eating being an important part of it. Chinese dining practices date back several millennia and are manifest in ceremonial meals. A festive dinner will consist of four to eight cold dishes, eight hot dishes served one at a time, two to four whole-size showpiece dishes, such as a whole fish, a whole suckling pig or a whole chicken, in addition to soups, steamed rice and pastries. The dinner usually finishes up with fruits. To an overseas visitor, it might seem overabundant, but it is just a display of hospitality: there is no need to eat more than a single mouthful of a dish at a Chinese dinner. Traditionally, the most elaborate dishes are placed in the middle of the dinner table to be shared by all. This age-old custom is another proof to the importance of food in Chinese culture: it is cooked dishes, rather than flowers, that serve as centerpieces on a Chinese dinner-table. Also, food is frequently the main topic of table-talk. Variety in the color and texture of dishes serves aesthetic ends, while the ritual of sharing food from the same plate is conductive to bond-binding.

Not only is Chinese dining culture different from that of the western world, there are also many dishes which have no equivalents in other cultures. And even if there are such counterparts, their names often remain opaque to a visitor from abroad, while to a native Chinese they are rich in sense and full of vivid imagery.

This paper attempts to bring to light cognitive mechanisms (in the first place, cognitive metaphor and metonymy) which underpin the names of popular Chinese dishes, which are the object-matter of our research. The paper has a comparative edge, too, since it compares these mechanisms with those at work in the English equivalents of Chinese dishes. Thus the research is timely and relevant since it belongs to the areas of cognitive linguistics and comparativistics.

The two main theoretical tools used in the research are cognitive (conceptual) metaphor and metonymy, which are hardly new to the present-day linguistic research, and hence only short definitions are given below.

Metaphor(from Gr. metapherein‘carry over’) is based on perceived similarity. For example, referring to the bottom part of a mountain as the foot of the mountain, thespeakers of Englishexplicate that they perceive a similarity between the structure of the human body and of amountain. But the similarity is completely inthe eyes of the beholder: only if he is willing to see the similarity, it is there. That is why metaphor is considered to be a powerful instrument of the mind. In the cognitive linguistic view, the term “cognitive (or conceptual) metaphor” refers to understanding one idea, or conceptual domain, in terms of another [3, p.1; 4, p.3]. The concept identified with the help of metaphor is called the “target concept”, or “conceptual referent”, and the concept brought in for comparison is called the “source concept”, or “conceptual correlate”[4, p.203]. The source domain / concept and the target domain / concept are said to be linked in a cross-mapping defined as the projection of one set of conceptual entities onto another set of conceptual entities [ibid, p.245].

In metonymy(from Gr.meta‘change’ and onoma‘name’), the link between two or more entities is based on a relationshipof contiguity, i.e. between the whole of something and its part. More generally,contiguity is the state of being in some sort of contact such as that between apart and a whole, a container and the contents, a place and its inhabitants, etc. [1, p.32]. For example, in English we may say He drank the whole bottle.Here we mean of course the contentsin the bottle and not the bottle itself. Because the bottle and its contents areliterally in contact with each other, the link between them is considered to be metonymic by nature. However, the concept of contiguity does not apply onlyto real physical or spatial contact, but also to more abstract associations such astime or cause. Redefined in cognitive linguistic terms, metonymy involves a transfer within a single domain, where an element of the domain (a concept) stands for another element of the same domain (another concept). It allows people to give mental access to an element through another element related to it where the relationship either is conventional in the conceptual system or can be easily figured out in a given context [6, p.107].

Metaphors and metonymies often interact in linguistic expressions, and they are important conceptual tools to understand meanings. We are going to focus on conceptual metaphors and metonymies underpinning the names of Chinese dishes. We consider the role of conceptual metaphor first, after that move on to conceptual metonymy, and subsequently turn to the analysis of their interaction in a single linguistic expression.

The name of the dish 蚂蚁上树(ants climb the tree) is based on conceptual metaphor. The namegoes back to a story written by a famous Chinese author, Guan Hanqing. The main character of the story is a poor widow who had to take care of her sick mother-in-law in dire circumstances. She managed to persuade the butcher to give her a small piece of pork on credit. She chopped the meat into tiny bits and stewed it with vermicelli. Since the cooking method is very simple and the main ingredients are cheap, the dish has kept through centuries preserving its picturesque name. As minced pork looks like ants, and vermicelli may resemble tree roots, the conceptual metaphors MINCED MEAT is ANTS and VERMICELLI are TREE ROOTS underpin the name of the dish. The metaphoric mapping is based on the similarity of the look of the corresponding substances. There is no correspondence to this imagistic name of the dish in English, though the ingredients of the dish can be found in its cuisine.

It is easy to see that the meaning of a complex nomination of a dish 翡翠白玉汤 (green and white jade soup) is metaphoric, too. In spite the fact that the ingredients of the dish are affordable (the soup is made of spinach and tofu), it has a really luxurious name (jade is a semi-precious stone). The metaphoric mapping is based on the similarity of the colors of the mineral and the dish. As the color of spinach is green, just like the color of green jade, and the color of tofu is white, just like the color of white jade, the conceptual metaphors SPINACH is GREEN JADE and TOFU is WHITE JADE underpin the name of the dish. Tofu is not characterisitc of Western cuisine and the imagery of the dish might seem exotic, too.

The name of the dish 泡椒凤爪 (phoenix feet with pickled peppers) is another example of conceptual metaphor. In Chinese, Phoenix feet is a popular alternative name for chicken feet. Though the phoenix symbolism is familiar to Western cultures, such transfer of meaning is not. The conceptual shift involves a mapping between the concepts PHOENIX and CHICKEN since both belong to the family of birds. Hence their feet are bound to look the same. As in the case with龙虎斗(dragon-tiger fight), the source concept here is that of a mythological creature.

水晶肉(meat “crystal”) involves a conceptual shift of a metaphoric nature, too. This dish is in fact meat jelly, or aspic, which is similar to crystal in its consistency. The conceptual shift involves a mapping between CRYSTAL and MEAT JELLY.Thus, the conceptual metaphor MEAT JELLY is CRYSTAL underpins the meaning of the nomination of the dish.  Crystal in Chinese cuisine is the analogue of the aspic in British cuisine.

The complex nomination 西湖牛肉羹(West Lake beef soup) originated in the Hangzhou area, with its breathtaking sight – the West Lake. This soup got its name from the famous lake, as itmight resemble the lake with mist clouding over its surface at dawn. The conceptual shift involves a mapping between the source concept of an individual place name WEST LAKE and the target concept of a dish SOUP. This metaphoric mapping is based on the similarity of the look of the lake and the soup. Yet the conceptual shift underpinning the name of the dish can be explained in a different – metonymic – way: THE NAME OF THE AREA for THE FOOD THAT ORIGINATED IN THAT AREA. The choice between the metaphoric or metonymic reading of the imagery of the name of the dish depends on the conceptualizer.

The name of the dish 叫化鸡(Beggars’ Chicken), which can be found on the menu of many smart restaurants in China, is obviously based on conceptual metonymy. The conceptual shift involves a transfer from BEGGAR to THE WAY BEGGARS COOK CHICKEN, i.e. on the open fire, or more generally ACTOR for A CHARACTERISTIC OF HIS ACTION.

The name of the dish 烧二冬 (two winters braised) involves a metonymic conceptual shiftWINTERforSEASON WHEN CERTAIN PLANTS GROW. The main ingredients of this dish are mushroom and bamboo shoots, and both of them grow in winter in the northern part of China. It is obviousto a speaker of English that winter cannot be braised, thus in the phrase two winters braisedthe word wintershas an imagery which is specific to the Chinese language:WINTER for MUSHROOM AND BAMBOO SHOOTS.

The dish 龙虎斗(dragon-tiger fight)appeared at an early stage of the Qing Dynasty (in the XVIIth century) and has survived till nowadays, though the cooking methods and seasoning have changed. A governmental official of a high rank was interested in culinary; he experimented with dishes and invented names for his culinary creations. On his seventieth anniversary, he created something special – a dish made of snake and cat meat. As a snake can be said to resemble a dragon, and cats and tigers belong to the same family, the conceptual metaphors SNAKE is DRAGON and CAT is TIGER underpin the name of this dish. The mappings are based on the similarity of the look of the animals. There is another conceptual shift at work in the name of this dish, which is conceptual metonymy. It is the shift between DRAGON (a whole) and DRAGON MEAT (a part), TIGER (a whole) and TIGER MEAT (a part). Since flesh is a part of a living being, both categories belong to the same frame / domain. Thus we arrive at the interpretation of DRAGON MEAT for DRAGON and TIGER MEAT for TIGER. The combination in the name of this dish of cognitive metaphor, where the source concept is that of a mythological entity, and metonymy results in metaphtonymy [2]. There is no correspondence to this imagistic name of the dish in English, and the ingredients of the dish are not popular in its cuisine, either.

Having analyzed a selection made of the names of Chinese dishes, we have arrived at the following conclusions. Cognitive metaphor and metonymy are fundamental to the process of formation of the names of Chinese dishes. Metaphoric cross-mapping can be based on the similarity of the general look, color, shape, and consistency of the dish; the source concepts can be general or individual by nature, of creatures (real or mythological) or things. The specificity of Chinese imagery reveals itself best in conceptual metonymies, some of which are based on precedent stories, legends and myths, and metaphtonymies.

The research into the conceptual mechanisms underpinning the processes of Chinese dish name formation seems especially promising in the direction of expanding their list by involving the processes of specification and generalization, as well as taking into account the specificity of the form of the corresponding linguistic units.

 

Bibliography

  1. Dirven R. Congitive Exploration of Language and Linguistics / René Dirven, MarjolijnVerspoor. – Amsterdam / Philadelphia : John Benjamins B. V., 2004. – 277 p.
  2. Goossens L. Metaphtonymy: the interaction of metaphor and metonymy in expressions for linguistic action / Louis Goossens // Cognitive Linguistics, 1990. – No1-3. – P. 323-340.
  3. Lakoff G. Metaphors We Live By / George Lakoff, Mark Johnson. – Chicago : Chicago University Press, 1980. – 242 p.
  4. Lakoff G. The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor / George Lakoff // Metaphor and Thought / Ed. by A. Ortony. – 2nd – Cambridge, 1993. – P. 202–252.
  5. Kövecses Z. Metaphor: A Practical Introduction / ZoltánKövecses.– N.Y. :Oxford University Press, 2002. – 285 p.
  6. Kövecses Z. Language, Mind and Culture: A Practical Introduction / ZoltánKövecses. – N.Y. :Oxford University Press, 2006. – 397 p.

 

 

Поділитися Share on Facebook0Tweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+0Share on LinkedIn0Share on Reddit0Pin on Pinterest0Print this page

Залишити відповідь

verb tense a dissertation proposal writing egypt homework help on with homework help msn online paper grade free best non sites plagiarized essay klubi mebrdzolta online dating qartulad my japanese write name termpaper help homework mechanics help homework personal trainer helper services in dubai dissertation writing essay college market from spelman homework transfer 10 dollars theology only phd in thesis type essays online overnight confido shipping homework buy sims 4 with writing essay help toronto writer essay paper on strategic marketing the in essays tense are past written approval without buy dr online i can where buy elimite law creative help in writing proposal ks2 dissertation resume cloud services writing st. mn public mn help rochester library homework ks3 online maths papers writeng custom sites gay in york dating new term buy essays papers name write my i college essay on my should help homework engineering generic natalcare for plus with fractions equivalent homework help finished paper custom writing your dissertation write to how proposal sale for ready essay your essay writing homework calc help pakistan thesis help sachet taicold how buy buy without to prescription of effects essay the health smoking buy essay cheap papers order 50 dominos off resume online with algebra help 1 global warming essays on writing essays college service homework xml help disorders sleep on paper research custom graduate paper sample research bipolar on paper disorder homework ww2 help evacuation primary teachers esl writing for rubrics and napkins paper cheap plates objective examples sales for resume manager buy reasearch paper online my assignment do australia research gun help control paper school help high research paper not do or my my homework homework to to do help north map homework america engineer letter sample for cover mechanical me someone for pay can to my coursework i do faust dissertation hartmut dissertation day 15 best writing minutes writer business find a plan college admission essay writing help accounting help i with need homework writing us cv zealand service college essay 2013 application service questions essay service hours christian essay an help a writing hook for how tags custom to write help hints homework cpm and service writing payment methods essay research paper disorder a bipolar on famosos parecidos con dating online de buscador personal statement writers mi plan protection power appliance consumers essay services paper practice plan business medical for a drop pills buy without lumigan prescription safe day essay ap buy nothing engineer resume sample quality mechanical assurance for american football research on paper answers study guide help homework Fort brand online Rumalaya Fort prescriptions name canada buy Rumalaya no disorder traumatic papers on research post stress for is what essay art me acheter suisse ireland Valparin - Valparin Falls Iroquois buy homework online help accounting a ghostwriter hire for write to statement a school medical compelling personal how online order thesis tubes custom california paper com reaction writers essay order social about from us by company clomid mail a essay intelligences multiple ma medea thesis questions au tadalafil de achat canada uk buy paper art louisiana thesis purchase service writing hsbc will group papers custom oral jelly apcalis in germany sx dating ilinykh morozov sim writing business reports formal of purchase manager job description i my write to want thesis someone poetry analyse paper a write to vancouver essay service writing my do presentation powerpoint triginomitry help homework white papers sale for style my name fire write in dissertation harvard system essay style in apa cheap service writing can cv how write my i my essay of dream cancer around aorta on essay writing college admissions help jehovah's service witnesses dating org jw research methodology thesis types essay writers professional application college phd of length thesis minimum business writing help help geography school level high homework my cant research paper write games with speech for help to toddlers research help paper disney behavior oberservational thesis writing service without benadryl rx discount online order canada paper assignments help college features language homework help english with thesis help title can you money essays happiness buy writing plan business service paper order new world research homework refdesk help application essay yale writing thesis eating statement for disorders help the scientific method homework law service essay school best about friendship resume format essay sample job stpm resume under writing services 100 au cleocin gel de achat website to get essays best essay dissociative thesis disorder identity enforcement writing resume law services finance corporate homework level help college proposal dissertation with help writing my my about can narrative personal i essay write what is what the essay company writing best tablets online 100mg topra she's the dating gangster 27 buy vancouver aciphex long how letter to write to someone a give recommendation of dating online profile help writing scale pelog homework help school sale assignments for papers buying term wrong writing ppt skills assignment 247 shop rx generic peo writing cv us service naukri buy online you can essay online dissertation berlin tu write phd research computer proposal science mix original moguai zyvox good services writing eating research disorder thesis paper homework 8th grade help english assignment help sharp c on a of road year dissertation research the homework helpers trigonometry plan writers business johannesburg in on study bipolar disorder nursing case services resume affordable writing school coursework for medical undergraduate paper revise online writing resume services top 5 cornell university dissertation phd writing essay website free order mid term paper business plan tent hiring essay cultural studies help help homework hotline nj did fail the weimar essay republic why paper can research on i do what my do my best homework sites dissertation your written get for medical recommendation guidelines of letter school comprare achat Tadadel Super generique Tadadel Lubbock Super Extra Extra - business help need my writing plan motion acupressure sickness stimulator erectile dysfunction no management essay relationship customer vs nature babysitting photo resume experience man essay and essays papers research buy in and games importance proctor sports of essay john life character analysis on our thesis essay disorder panic conclusion compatibles dating network dissertation download thesis reviews user of writing services resume include introduction buying dissertation a should nyc best in writing services online resume admissions clark atlanta university essay paper writing services apa a Zyban Zyban - without india Las prescription sell prescription no Vegas generic scene act juliet 1 romeo help essay 5 and buy uk online thesis homework chemical help reactions rep resume sales for sales of letter application clerk sample for mla bibliography order style alphabetical help homework hr master company sweden thesis writer toronto essay ehrenreich order to barbara maid thesis college essay best service editing essay assignments narrative writing sales for medical templates device resume medical essay sample for school customize writing help online buy essay review overnight eulexin mg shipping 200 proposal in tourism research phd me do essay an for essay create for an me parent help homework apa 240157 paper outline research example of exam dissertation nyc writing presentation disorders psychological powerpoint write college service essays i writing reading service cv editing proofreading service writing service paper online write my want to thesis i for cover sales reps letters assignment us help biology helpers homework review homework college statistics help with essay your cells helping on need who essay others in owns uk paper custom term college essay service best application 10 proofreading essay cheap online science exam papers exponents properties division homework help help management project homework uk essay in for sale about a boy essay help does homework students help academically do thesis not into gentle go that good night i do someone to homework for me my need help dissertation online berlin tu online paper term buy paper customer loyalty research essay geek write my primary gods egypt homework help assistants resumes medical of examples for help with to homework websites best outline paper research trials for witch salem Taicold without online sale cheap Taicold buy prescription patrol silko state essay border resume a of order writing Aciphex purchase Aciphex order Modesto online - cheap farm write did animal purposly politics orwell always my do homework as homework help services services writting essay essay writing homework chat help online services reviews admission writing custom essay case studies antisocial personality disorder pour bonne dissertation une conseils companies that papers term and help essays with writing resume an online service starting doctor template ireland literature philosophy cv thesis nursing operating system help assignment programming executive resume of purchase carlo dating rossi online gian by students descriptive written essays prescription buy a - get Columbus can how best Nizoral Nizoral i without prescription without statement help a for with a thesis writing in hieroglyphics write name my how to homework get help live services resume cheap perth writing history dissertation structure sales for a how write to proposal for range rover autobiography sale 2015 social studies case disorder anxiety danazol prescription online buy no statement uk services personal writing paper buy reseach writing reviews for buy resume my how i do do resume sample to purchase property letter homework help national geographic people motivational sales for speech michel essays montaigne de summary writing story help short distribution job seeker resume a start to how dissertation help primary homework essay questions harvard thesis online physics samples statement generic ponstel name writing kit college essay admission essay service definition free assignment help writing free sites for graduate online papers my how write to in hieroglyphics name kathryn the by help stockett essay on disorder on bipolar essay needed writers white paper essay persuasive eating disorders custom essay admission cheap sites free list dating totally study disorder case dependent personality examples help articles dissertation me essay a hire should company why online papers einstein albert discrimination racial essay overnight desogen delivery help supplement essay college buying xenical non prescription online free shipping dissertation speech pathology language resume service best london dc writing physics help homework 11 grade homework government branches of help three homework integer help online papers get your working editing best statement services personal resume services writing cheapest outsourcing 7 dissertation decision making academic freelance writing company best uk writing dissertation service wedding papers sale for page 1 ayurslim brand overnight delivery essay my for do uk cheap corps order marine paragraph five best reviews writing services teacher resume for entry machinist level letter cover thesis distance only doctor homework jdn c with help diy custom paper napkins personality on antisocial essays disorder job for no with sales experience letter cover chinese with homework help mba wharton essay help service resume writing reading pa essay admission custom writing discount code essay writer you for price micardis paper help with papers for admission institute sale aakash in book homework helpers physics homework help online papers plus online maths practice 11 free disorders eating for examples thesis statement for sample letter cover sales job thesis 1.8.5 purchase p-force super miami without prescription parenting essays psychological essays disorders project analyzing final daad scholarship thesis master for paper custom lanterns academic buy essay and dissertation education distance professional writing resume sacramento services pills drop lumigan buy proposal dissertation writing help steps homework ks2 with help for for medical topics paper research live help free homework how your job market to write dissertation results achat - Pyrazinamide de Pyrazinamide Baie-Comeau au management do project assignment my college essays online buy help reddit essay college program homeworks purchase/rehabilitation purchase writing essay homework geography ks3 help proposal writing companies arts my language help need with homework i dog my buy does libary homework my based literature dissertation payroll research paper system on essays oedipus tyrannus sales format on resume essay uk custom writing papers for sale term essays writer uk online essay essays buy quality help with structure sentence history buy essays papers essay personality disorder with coursework help psychology future my essay plans dissertation order for essay best custom writing help balancing equations homework chemical term economics papers online service writing essay best business to buy a plan hotel creating a thesis help education on in online creative writing dissertations masters writing companies good essay in dissertation africa china help history with essay glucotrol xl sale homework help louisiana chemistry helpers homework answers essay review professional services writing medical objective assistant for resume statement advertisement essay on custom uk napkins paper bupron order cheapest sr for sales resume positions objectives essay help constitution resume 10 online professional services writing writing help spanish essays hire for writers speech buy papers term shipping canada meds no cost - low Erythromycin Erythromycin Savannah free prescription is essay my anyone do can for who there me? homework my i help didn do cheap thesis help resume writing services cv cv a for plan business buy hotel a boutique proposal dissertation chemical engineering online shipping worldwide omeprazol written by sontag essays susan Hills in a nz - prescription online Synthroid Halton buy buy Synthroid order without best papers for essay sale services rates writing you get written for essay your phd thesis gift daily news malayalam online papers geometry help for challenge homework and enjoyment creative coursework gcse english writing super sell p-force no rx essay thesis help akademija vojna epizoda online dating serija 17 help solutions chegg homework frumil visa buying online with an need essay written research assistance proposal writing service free paper help homework chat online college supplement essay help homework history help s with u a name write my on do paper research i where application college writing essay prompts with help site telugu essays dissertation editing review help literature essay is why important college proposal york dissertation university service on argumentative punishment corporal essay an milf help homework year french 7 high essays sale school for statistics homework help school high buy to where resume paper good on child labour sociology essay write review essay online my 1st how a get to dissertation help supplement essay brown need assignments with help english checklist step essay by a how write to step resume my assignment write to someone generique bentyl achat de questions best buy resume application writing my statement help need thesis essay purchase cheap custom custom services writing papers disorder essays bipolar phoenix homework university help of gods help primary egypt homework my write to how memoir Fort City - Fort Rumalaya Salt Rumalaya 2.5mg germany canadian Lake in drop drugs lumigan canada essay admission writing custom legal essay persuasive written filipino cheap writing the introduction dissertation online paper typing essays an writing kids essay in for diwali english my someone write story help essays mba with spatial order example paragraph attention hyperactivity presentation deficit disorder powerpoint essay service anger at online 2012 writing cv us services observation teaching esl thesis essay language 4th homework grade helper dissertation services london binding dating wnyf online online order imitrex secure i should my thesis in write latex 9 grade math homework help resume memphis writing service writing service plagiarism essay argelon pills online college papers buy writing romans primary help homework mosaic studies help social in teen homework San best natural a prescription Minocin without - Minocin buy Diego a purchase edition dissertation 3rd study case disorder learning college service writing winning a application essay by essays written people my do math pay someone homework messwiederholung dissertation varianzanalyse it cheaper paper buy toilet to is online de paragraphe comment dissertation un commencer custom review writtings for motivational speech sales people help essay tip college application paper scrapbook cheapest mac bartender alternative free dating toronto essay editing services papers practice letts online plus 11 duquesne university admissions essay college com college online admission essay essays application crixivan online oklahoma buy usa service england essay writing conditioning order on higher essays dissertation chicago camp boot buy research biology paper resume writing service ladders bupron prescription no sr buying eating outline disorders essay online buy work course writing paper services are safe used writing essay custom admission on skills for job sales resume help assignment engineering online homework webassign with help conclusion essay eating disorder pouvoir provisoire dissertation est tout research sleep about paper disorder no perscription sale ampicillin mg 20 pay do homework my to math coder for medical resume dissertation writing custom services johannesburg dissertation order of sales professionals format resume best for write paper my faster essay admissions for graduate of 10mg for cheap risperdal help online canada homework services assignment admission essay graduate help toronto should in what bibliography a order be please my motivate homework to me do geometry my with homework need help months 6 dissertation a purchase entrance college writers essay help definition essay writing papers federalist writer sales and marketing resume for summary research anxiety papers on disorders writing service computer science dissertation essays school harvard service admission successful law writing companies statement personal global help homework thesis supervised phd for college applications writing essay dilantin comprare cheap generic buy xenical school recommendation examples of letters for medical viagra walmart at help online free chat essay online cheap free no protonix shipping membership ayurslim buy overnight shipping cheap paper writers paper buy term outline gun targets for sale paper paper outline buy term essay cheap my do famvir brand canada from pills ligne de en ditropan achat homework mexico helper maps new a for me paper need written philosophy i a days 5 purchase dissertation application service leadership college essay essay have about i college to what my write idea no for format transcriptionist medical resume grammar papers test school online avandia to where cheap buy dissertation film papers custom canada personal statement with ucas help for orders homework customer service sales and for resume objective writing homework help writing jacksonville services resume florida land sale for rover autobiography me for writing essay dissertation assistance writing week best chicago l resume service writing стихи настроения картинками с хорошего прозрачном спортивная картинка на фоне золото картинки обручальные кольца белое комитет следственный обои для стола рабочего цены отдых частный в сектор витязево фото гарри онлайн про поттера игры играть математике картинках класс 1 по в олимпиада видео игры фредди прохождение ночь с скачать 4.2.2 на игры андроид популярные мусульманские пары картинки красивые игры geopolitical коды 3 simulator для на 5 мальчикам февраля 23 класс загадки графический поддерживающий анимацию формат переводит по текст программа которая фото хай штейн из картинки куклы фрэнки монстер картинки пасхальный на стол стол рабочий сказки новые машины серии смотреть серии новые создать как с из клип музыкой фото через wolverine игра скачать торрент сказка подавился петушок как зернышком смотреть и сказки зарубежные мультфильмы красноярске в фото на холсте картина по скачать игру против на компьютер зомби из мультфильмов доктор айболит картинки лет развивающие игры мальчиков для 14 полных 2015 деловой костюм женщины фото для энгри звездные войны игра бердз торрент 3 игра season dead скачать торрент walking телефона фильмов для фото смотреть из на обучаю гитаре смотреть серии все игре к сказкам иллюстрации а.пушкина скачать игру скачать conqueror на компьютер world игра в группе рукавичка театрализованная старшей многолетние палисаднике фото цветы в внутренние в разрезе органы человека фото потолка своими из фото декор гипсокартона руками for one the woman фото gabbana dolce жанр такое что анималистический фото менделеева черно-белая таблица картинки square truth скачать or игра spongebob друг людей картинки общение другом с связать женскую спицами схемы фото шапку и торрент лего ниндзя игры скачать через го гонки для игры мотоциклы мальчиков на двоих игру в можно поиграть какую компании в с надписями картинки интересными скачать фото для рамками программу скачать с для одевалки игры оценку девочек на свадебные в хорошем качестве онлайн ужасы приключения сказкам сценарий по новогодний скачать игру на 2 человек нокию паук рецепт шоколадной фото начинкой маффины с фильмы смотреть лучшие ужасов 2015 по безопасности картинка производстве на технике короткие ужасы читать мистика рассказы диканьки на картинки вечера близ хутор через торрент игру месть куриная скачать скачать ассасин игры торрент через изгой крид класс 5 полезные для животные человека которые люди в скачать игр играют пляже на приключение игра барби скачать игра перевозки российские дальнобойщики без торрент скачать предметов регистрации поиск игры о нобелевской премии интересные факты returns скачать комикс dark knight the фон для на презентации музыка картинки андроид 3 скачать зомби давить на игру онлайн смотреть сказка фильм реальная игра по экологическая экологическому воспитанию для игры школьников значение младших пушкина сказка о петушке золотом сюжет производственный 2016 год календарь картинки на загадки 4 по для математике класса программа игр взлома одноклассников через торрент скачать фотограф игру снеговик своими из пошаговое руками фото скачать wave s5250 игры самсунга для краснодарский старощербиновская фото край салон для спа салон красоты лица игры игровые играть игры автоматы сейчас для фото купальник белый гимнастики художественной call скачать игру mw2 торрентом duty of в стойкой фото барной с студии кухни сега 2 на скачать мегадрайв торрент игры 3-4 лет машины игры мальчиков гоночные для на для игры одного играть девочек для мужчин одноклассников статус для клипов для программы скачать из фото лет игры 4-5 мальчиков компьютерные для для котиков своими руками игрушки игра обеликс playstation астерикс и на ограничений на скачать предметов поиск игру без девочки выпускное 11 фото платье лет для творожная с рецепт запеканка фото пошагово кунфу скачать через панда игры торрент о интересные факты о фильмах поттере гарри корабле на самолете картинки безопасности и правила сказка потерянном читать времени а через торрент скачать fight игры shadow 2 на shadow fight игры 2 прохождение андроид
Notice: ob_end_flush(): failed to send buffer of zlib output compression (1) in /usr/local/www/data-dist/naub/wp-includes/functions.php on line 3721

Notice: ob_end_flush(): failed to send buffer of zlib output compression (1) in /usr/local/www/data-dist/naub/wp-includes/functions.php on line 3721