ВИКОРИСТАННЯ ПРИСЛІВ’ЇВ ТА ЦИТАТ У ВИВЧЕННІ АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ

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УДК 811.111’36

О.М. Дорофєєва

Хмельницький національний університет (м. Хмельницький)

 

В статті розглядається використання прислів’їв, приказок та цитат при вивченні англійської мови. Короткі літературні форми успішно тренують різні аспекти мови, а саме, вимову, граматику, лексику та критичне мислення.

Ключові слова: прислів’я, приказки, цитати, граматика, лексика, вимова.

В статье рассматривается использование поговорок, пословиц и цитат в изучении английского языка. Короткие литературные формы успешно тренируют разные аспекты языка, а именно, произношение, грамматику, лексику и критическое мышление.

Ключевые слова: цитаты, пословицы, поговорки, грамматика, лексика, произношение.

The article deals with the usage of proverbs and quotations in language learning. Short texts are good for language learning because they train different skills like pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and critical thinking.

Key words: proverbs, quotations, grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary.

Використання англійських прислів’їв та цитат створює ідеальні умови для розвитку мовлення учнів на різних етапах і рівнях навчання [1, 2]. Приказки та цитати слугують джерелом збагачення мови, підвищенню її логічної, емоційної та стилістичної виразності. Вони є частиною культури народу і завжди залишаються актуальними.

Для зацікавлення учнів цитати та прислів’я є незамінним елементом побудови креативного уроку. Є декілька особливих причин для використання саме цих малих літературних форм у вивченні іноземної мови, а саме:

– вони мудрі та вагомі по лексичному значенню;

– її легко знайти в Інтернеті;

– можуть бути використані при навчанні різних аспектів мови: фонетичному, граматичному і лексичному;

– вони не важкі для запам’ятовування завдяки співзвучності, римі та ритміці;

– вони є виразними і експресивними, вимагають активізації образного мислення та аналізу;

–         допомагають проілюструвати точку зору і узагальнити її у короткій формі.

Саме завдяки тому, що прислів’я та цитати є невеликими за формою, їх легко інтегрувати у процес уроку. Для вправ на основі них не потрібно багато підготовки; а також вони допомагають ввести елемент гри на різних етапах вивчення англійської мови.

На початковому етапі вивчення англійської мови (формування мовленнєвих навичок) прислів’я допомагають обробляти звукову складову мовлення. Вони допоможуть встановити правильну вимову деяких важких для не англійця приголосних, особливо тих, що відсутні в українській мові. Замість окремих слів і словосполучень пропонуються спеціально підібрані прислів’я. Потім протягом 2-3 уроків прислів’я повторюються, при цьому вимова звука підлягає коректуванню. Даний вид роботи може бути включеним до уроку на різних його етапах, він є своєрідною розрядкою для учнів.

Наприклад:

звук [w] – Which way the wind blows;

звук [m] – So many men, so many minds;

звук [h] – Handsome is as handsome does;

звук [b] – Business before pleasure;

сполучення звуків [t] і [r] – Don’t troubles until trouble troubles you.

На середньому етапі вивчення мови можна використовувати малі літературні форми для розвитку лексичного запасу і підсилення інтересу до навчання. Вважаємо за доцільне запропонувати наступні цікаві вправи:

–       побудова правильного порядку вислову:

  • by / little / grow / little / the / bananas;

–       заповнення пропусків:

beauty    charmer    notices    woman

  • “A ___ is a ___ you notice; a ___ is a woman who ___ you.”

(Adlai Stevenson)

(“A beauty is a woman you notice; a charmer is a woman who notices you.”)

–       Створення власного вислову:

  • “A ____ (noun) is an animal you ___ (verb); a ___ is an animal who (verb) you.”

Незамінними є прислів’я та вислови у цікавому навчанні граматичних явищ. Зокрема, за допомогою них можна практикувати вивчення певних тем, залучивши при цьому елементи гри або виконуючи звичні традиційні вправи.

Наведемо приклади:

–       поставте дієслово у правильну форму:

“A chicken that ___ (hatch) a crocodile’s egg ___ (look) for trouble”.

“If you _____ (escape) the jaws of the crocodile while bathing in the river, you _____ (meet) a leopard on the way home”.

–       заповніть пропуски, використовуючи модальні слова «could» або «should»:

  • He who takes a light to find a shake ___ start at his own feet;
  • If a child washes his hands he ___ eat with kings.

Робота над вивченням числівників безумовно буде цікавішою та ефективнішою, якщо закликати на допомогу прислів’я і приказки, оскільки в контексті цифри запам’ятовуються швидше.

–       Two is company three is none.

–       Two heads are better than one.

–       If two men ride on a horse, one must ride behind.

–       A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

–       Rain before seven, fine before eleven.

–       A cat has nine lives.

–       To kill two birds with one stone.

–       Custom is a second nature.

Для розвитку комунікативних навичок та покращення монологічного мовлення доцільним прийомом є інтерпретація значення прислів’їв. У такому виді діяльності велике значення має підбір виразу, що спонукатиме учнів до висловлення власної думки. На нашу думку, гарними для обговорення є наступні:

You can’t judge a book by its cover;

A friend in need in a friend indeed;

All bread is not baked in one oven;

Appearances are deceitful.

Цікавим видом діяльності при навчанні письму вважаємо продовження другої половини прислів’я або виразу на власний розсуд.

Children get jealous of each other when … ,

Women love men who … .

Після розгляду та аналізу учнівських варіантів доцільно провести порівняння з оригіналом.

Залучення народної творчості при вивченні іноземних мов є найбільш продуктивним з точки зору розвитку когнітивних вмінь учнів. Завчаючи вирази напам’ять, учні збагачують свій словниковий запас не тільки новою лексикою, але й усталеними конструкціями, які в процесі подальшого вивчення іноземної мови зможуть використовувати у якості активного словника. Наприклад:

There is no place like home.

There are lees to every wine.

There are more ways to the wood than one.

There is no fire without smoke.

Одним з успішних методів навчання письму є завдання по написанню творів та коротких есе на основі прислів’я. Учням бажано запропонувати прислів’я або цитати для ілюстрації певної життєвої ситуації.

Для групової роботи доцільно запропонувати скласти розповідь, використавши якомога більше прислів’їв.

Ряд дослідників (З. К. Тарланов, Л. Б. Савєнкова, Г. Д. Сідоркова, A. Taylor, A. Fox, N. Barley та ін.) відмічають, що, вивчаючи прислів’я і приказки на іноземній мові, ми можемо краще зрозуміти носіїв цієї мови, оскільки в них відображаються особливості історії, культури, побуту даного народу.

Робота з прислів’ями та висловами відомих людей є важливим компонентом у вивченні англійської мови. Використання малих текстів вважаємо невід’ємною частиною побудови цікавого, креативного заняття. Прислів’я, приказки, вирази слугують матеріалом для навчання говорінню, письму та граматиці. Вони здатні зробити будь-яку тему цікавою для учнів.

При навчанні вимові та артикуляції звуків значення малих літературних форм важко переоцінити. Робота з прислів’ями та приказками на заняттях з англійської мови викликає в учнів позитивні емоції, підвищує мотивацію до навчання. Потенціал методів роботи з такими виразами не обмежується лише роботою в класі. Прислів’я,  приказки, цитати, вислови відомих людей можуть бути успішно використані у позаурочний час при організації конкурсів, вікторин та ток-шоу.

 

Література

  1. Померанцева Т.А. Использование поговорок и скороговорок на уроке немецкого языка // Иностранные языки в школе. – 2001. – №2 – С. 50-52.
  2. Резник Л.С. Английские пословицы на вашем уроке // Іноземні мови. – 2000. – №4 – С. 64-65.
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