Вчення буддизму про любов

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         Ні в чому, крім любові,  не відбувається одночасно  стільки щастя і страждання.

Ось чому своє місце знаходить тут вчення Будди, спрямоване на досконалість людини.

Етична система Будди містить у собі основні прості норми загальнолюдської моралі. Смиренність, лагідність, любов до всього живого, терплячість, співчуття, готовність до взаємодопомоги та інші моральні якості – це все  кроки до  людського спасіння. В етичних положеннях буддизму привабливим виглядає проповідь любові і милосердя до всього живого без різниці між добрим і лихим, корисним і шкідливим. Буддист п’є воду, обов’язково користуючись ситечком, щоб, бува, яка комаха випадково не постраждала. А йдучи по дорозі, гілкою розмітає шлях перед собою, щоб часом не наступити на щось живе. Певна річ, така любов переноситься і на людей: нікому не заважати, нікого не образити, нікому не заподіяти якоїсь шкоди! [ 1, с. 202]

         Важливо відзначити те, що буддизм  вчить не тільки любові до всього живого, а й любові одного суб’єкта стосовно іншого, а якщо точніше, то сильному зв’язку  між чоловіком і жінкою.

         В цілому є два види любові. Найбільш поширене тлумачення любові містить в собі  багато очікувань і прагнення брати, але існує інше розуміння любові – давати. Та любов, яка отримується людиною, характеризується прив’язаністю, ревністю, гнівом і корисністю. У свою чергу любов, яка дається спирається на буддійське мислення і поділяється на  просто любов, співчуття, безособову  радість і безпристрасність. У випадку розповсюдженої егоїстичної любові простір стає дуже маленьким і бідним. Світ зменшується, ми живемо у минулому чи у майбутньому, і в центрі нашої уваги знаходиться лише те, що з’являється  та зникає. Ми вміщуємо  енергію в свої почуття, які приносять нам то радість, то біль і не містять в собі ніякого довготривалого сенсу. Тому людина не повинна думати тільки про себе, хотіти «все і зразу» і тим самим розвивати свою егоїстичність. Хороші взаємовідносини починаються в той момент, коли для однієї людини благо іншої стає важливішим власного. Разом з таким настроєм виникає справжня жива любов, в якій люди доповнюють один одного. Говорячи про любов як таку, ми не можемо оминути таке поняття як щастя. У буддизмі щастя – це питання настрою. «Він складає основу будь-яких взаємовідносин. Будуть вони у кінцевому результаті успішними чи ні, залежить від того, що для нас важливіше – щастя іншої людини чи власне. В постійному егоїзмі щастя зазнає поразки. Коли ми зберігаємо хороші зв’язки один з одним і укріплюємо взаємну довіру, тим самим ми примножуємо позитивні враження і  збільшуємо можливість давати щось іншим. Свідоме бажання давати іншим щастя і показувати його причину – вчитися і  робити те, що веде до щастя – називається Просвітленим настроєм» [ 2, с.197]. Він надає життю сенс. Для того, щоб ми зберігали цей настрій, навіть під тиском обставин, в буддизмі використовується внутрішня обіцянка. Це так звана «обіцянка Бодхісатви» (обіцянка досягти просвітлення заради блага всіх істот і з певними зусиллями і силою працювати  заради  їхньої тимчасової користі), яку потрібно дати у присутності просвітленого вчителя. Буддист, який розвивається і прагне до просвітлення для блага всіх істот, називається Бодхісатвою. Досягти такого стану можна через «Шість звільняючих дій», які рекомендував Будда:

 – осмислена поведінка означає завдяки розуму і мові  створювати надійний фундамент розвитку і приносити користь іншим;

– терпіння означає  зберігати невимушений розум;

– зусилля – розвиватися буде тільки той, хто за допомогою корисних і радісних дій долає свої кордони;

– медитація означає  утримання розуму, яке дозволяє  звільнятися від тих почуттів, які заважають  і пізнавати їх непостійність;

– звільняюча мудрість – проникаюче бачення нереальності свого «я».

[2, с. 228].

         «Шість звільняючих дій» Будда назвав звільняючими не тільки тому, що вони створюють хорошу карму. Використовуючи їх, у кінцевому результаті людина приходить до звільнення і розуміння того, що ідея «себе» вважається помилковою. Якщо при тому налаштувати себе на те, що  суб’єкт, об’єкт і сама дія не мають власної незалежної природи і являються частинками одного цілого, – ці   дії збагачують близькі відносини і в перспективі  ведуть до Просвітлення.

         Будда і любов: все про що говорилося до  сих пір, являється шляхом до найвищого Просвітлення. Любов, у своїй безграничній цілісності, як постійна готовність і прагнення допомагати істотам, повністю можлива лише в просвітленому стані. Тому, згідно буддизму, любов, яка  не є просвітленою, може виражатися лише частково.

 Список використаної літератури

1. Лубський В. І.  Релігієзнавство Навчальний посібник / В. І Лубський –  К.:Вілбор, 2002. – 432 c.

 2.  Лама Оле Нидал. Будда и любовь. Как любить и быть счастливым / Лама Оле Нидал – М.:«Алмазний путь», 2008. – 276 c.

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