COGNITIVE ASPECTS OF SECOND-LANGUAGE AQUISITION

Поділитися Share on Facebook0Tweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+0Share on LinkedIn0Share on Reddit0Pin on Pinterest0Print this page

УДК 378.091.2’373.5

 

S.I.Shandruk,

Kirovohrad Volodymyr Vynnychenko State Pedagogical University,

Kirovohrad

 

У статті розглядаються когнітивні аспекти вивчення другої мови; аналізується ефективність програм мовного занурення, що використовують особливості опанування другої мови як для білінгвальних учнів, так і для носіїв інших мов і культур; вивчаються внутрішні механізми (когнітивний, соціокультурний, лінгвістичний) оволодіння другою мовою.  

Ключові слова: когнітивний підхід, вивчення другої мови, когнітивний, соціокультурний, лінгвістичний механізми.

 

В статье рассматриваются когнитивные аспекты изучения второго языка; анализируется эффективность программ языкового погружения, использующих особенности овладения вторым языком как для билингвальных учеников, так и для носителей других языков и культур; изучаются внутренние механизмы (когнитивный, социокультурный, лингвистический) овладения вторым языком. 

Ключевые слова: когнитивный подход, изучение второго языка, когнитивный, социокультурный, лингвистический механизмы.

 

Thearticlediscussescognitiveaspectsofsecond-language acquisition. Effectiveness of immersion programs that use second language acquisition for bilingual students as well as people who speak other languages and come from other cultures is analysed. Internal mechanisms of second-language acquisition (cognitive, sociocultural, and linguistic) are studied in the article.

Keywords: cognitive approach, second language acquisition, cognitive, sociocultural, and linguisticmechanisms.

 

Introduction. The academic discipline of second-language acquisition (SLA) is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics . It is broad-based and relatively new. As well as the various branches of linguistics , second-language acquisition is also closely related to psychology, cognitive psychology , and education. To separate the academic discipline from the learning process itself, the terms second-language acquisition research, second-language studies, and second-language acquisition studies are also used. SLA research began as an interdisciplinary field, and because of this it is difficult to identify a precise starting date [6]. However, it does appear to have developed a great deal since the mid-1960s.  The term acquisition was originally used to emphasize the subconscious nature of the learning process,  but in recent years learning and acquisition have become largely synonymous.

Second-language acquisition can incorporate heritage language learning ,  but it does not usually incorporate bilingualism . Most SLA researchers (A. Benatty, S. Gass, R. Mitchell, F. Myles, E. Rod, L. Selinker, B. VanPatten and others) see bilingualism as being the end result of learning a language, not the process itself, and see the term as referring to native-like fluency. A complete theory of SLA must include both a property theory, of what the domain of knowledge is and how it is represented, and a transition theory, of how learners get from one knowledge state to another (K. Gregg, N. Ellis and others). Thus SLA is a subject of cognitive science par excellence (E. Bialystok, B. McLaughlin, M. Harrington, R. Schmidt and others) [3]. Writers in fields such as education and psychology, however, often use bilingualism loosely to refer to all forms of multilingualism .  Second-language acquisition is also not to be contrasted with the acquisition of a foreign language ; learning of second languages and learning of foreign languages involve the same fundamental processes in different situations.

Internal factors affecting second-language acquisition are those which stem from the learner’s own mind. Attempts to account for the internal mechanisms of second-language acquisition can be divided into three general strands: cognitive, sociocultural, and linguistic. These explanations are not all compatible, and often differ significantly.

Goals. Implementation of the cognitive approach to second language acquisition is to be discussed in this article.

Much modern research in second-language acquisition (R. Rueda, D. August, C. Goldenberg, J. Plass, D. Chun, R. Mayer, D. Leutner and others) has taken a cognitive approach [1]. Cognitive research is concerned with the mental processes involved in language acquisition, and how they can explain the nature of learners’ language knowledge. This area of research is based in the more general area of cognitive science, and uses many concepts and models used in more general cognitive theories of learning. As such, cognitive theories view second-language acquisition as a special case of more general learning mechanisms in the brain. This puts them in direct contrast with linguistic theories, which posit that language acquisition uses a unique process different from other types of learning.

Cognitive approaches, including Functional linguistics (T. Bates, B. MacWhinney and others), Emergentism (J. Elman, B. MacWhinney and others), Cognitive linguistics (R. Langacker, D. Ungerer, R. Schmid and others), and Constructivist child language researchers (P. Brooks, C. Slobin, MTomasello and others), view the linguistic sign as a set of mappings between phonological forms and conceptual meanings or communicative intentions [3]. They hold that simple associative learning mechanisms operating in and across the human systems for perception, motor-action and cognition as they are exposed to language data as part of a communicatively-rich human social environment by an organism eager to exploit the functionality of language are what drives the emergence of complex language representations.

The dominant model in cognitive approaches to second-language acquisition, and indeed in all second-language acquisition research, is the computational model [2]. The computational model involves three stages. In the first stage, learners retain certain features of the language input in short-term memory. Then, learners convert some of this intake into second-language knowledge, which is stored in long-term memory. Finally, learners use this second-language knowledge to produce spoken output. Cognitive theories attempt to codify both the nature of the mental representations of intake and language knowledge, and the mental processes which underlie these stages.

In the early days of second-language acquisition research interlanguage was seen as the basic representation of second-language knowledge; however, more recent research has taken a number of different approaches in characterizing the mental representation of language knowledge [1; 97-98]. There are theories that hypothesize that learner language is inherently variable, and there is the functionalist perspective that sees acquisition of language as intimately tied to the function it provides. Some researchers make the distinction between implicit and explicit language knowledge, and some between declarative and procedural language knowledge.  There have also been approaches that argue for a dual-mode system in which some language knowledge is stored as rules and other language knowledge as items.

The mental processes that underlie second-language acquisition can be broken down into micro-processes and macro-processes. Micro-processes include attention; working memory; integration and restructuring, the process by which learners change their interlanguage systems; and monitoring, the conscious attending of learners to their own language output. Macro-processes include the distinction between intentional learning and incidental learning; and also the distinction between explicit and implicit learning. Some of the notable cognitive theories of second-language acquisition include the nativization model, the multidimensional model and processability theory, emergentist models, the competition model, and skill-acquisition theories [6].

Other cognitive approaches have looked at learners’ speech production, particularly learners’ speech planning and communication strategies. Speech planning can have an effect on learners’ spoken output, and research in this area has focused on how planning affects three aspects of speech: complexity, accuracy, and fluency. Of these three, planning effects on fluency has had the most research attention. Communication strategies are conscious strategies that learners employ to get around any instances of communication breakdown they may experience. Their effect on second-language acquisition is unclear, with some researchers claiming they help it, and others claiming the opposite [6].

According to the National Center for Education Statistics (U. S. Department of Education, 2004) the number of students in the U.S. who live in homes where the first language is not English has doubled over the last 20 years [2]. For these language-minority students and their peers who are learning a second language, the goal is to develop several core competencies that allow them to develop and maintain social relationships and communicate ideas.

To support these students’ acquisition of a second language, researchers have identified two instructional approaches. First, proponents of the structural approach argue that drill and practice is the best way to learn grammar and vocabulary. With this approach, language is usually taught orally with an emphasis on the learner responding to spoken prompts. Second, the cognitive approach emphasizes how the learner interacts with language. An effort is made to make language acquisition a more active process. Instruction is based on activating prior knowledge and allowing the learner to build the cognitive skills required to understand, process, and interact with a language. Effective opportunities to learn a second language with the cognitive approach can be divided into three stages: a) comprehensible input, b) interaction, and c) comprehensible output.

Foreign language programs are often one of the first items to be scrutinized and cut when elementary, middle, and high schools in the U.S. face poor performance evaluations or budget crunches. However, many studies have demonstrated the benefits of second language learning not only on student’s linguistic abilities but on their cognitive and creative abilities as well. It is critical that foreign language instruction be available to all students throughout their PK-12 academic experience. Knowing other languages and understanding other cultures is a 21st Century skill set for American students as they prepare to live and work in a global society. No matter what career students enter, they will be interacting with others around the world on a routine basis and doing business locally with those whose native language is not English [4].

Beginning foreign language instruction early sets the stage for students’ to develop advanced levels of proficiencies in one or more languages. In addition, younger learners still possess the capacity to develop near native-like pronunciation and intonation in a new language. Finally, young learners have a natural curiosity about learning which is evident when they engage in learning a new language. They also are open and accepting of people who speak other languages and come from other cultures. Children who learn a foreign language beginning in early childhood demonstrate certain cognitive advantages over children who do not.

Foreign language learning is much more a cognitive problem solving activity than a linguistic activity, overall. Studies have shown repeatedly that foreign language learning increases critical thinking skills, creativity, and flexibility of mind in young children. Students who are learning a foreign language out-score their non-foreign language learning peers in the verbal and, surprisingly to some, the math sections of standardized tests. This relationship between foreign language study and increased mathematical skill development, particularly in the area of problem solving, points once again to the fact that second language learning is more of a cognitive than linguistic activity. Learning a second language is an exercise in cognitive problem solving and the effects of second language instruction are directly transferable to the area of mathematical skill development.

The notion of “earlier is better” in language learning seems to be upheld by the fact that longer sequences of foreign language instruction seem to lead to better academic achievement, overal [1; 46]. Because second language instruction provides young children with better cognitive flexibility and creative thinking skills, it can offer gifted students the intellectual and developmental challenges they need and desire.

The advantage for younger learners is that they have the ability to mimic closely the native pronunciation and intonation of a new language. In addition, literacy skills that are being developed in the native language transfer to the learning of the new language. For this reason, research studies have shown academic gains by students who have begun learning another language at an early age.

Immersion programs for older students are very effective as well. Depending on the age of the students, they may or may not develop native-like pronunciation and intonation. However, the older student already possesses an internalized grammar of the native language which is useful in learning a new language.

Regardless of age, immersion programs are effective because they use second language acquisition as the vehicle for learning the general education curriculum. This makes the content of the course inherently more interesting for the student and maximizes the instructional time by accomplishing two goals at once: language acquisition and content learning. Currently, over 100 public schools in the U.S. have foreign language immersion programs. Research on immersion programs show that when they are properly structured, they can be equally effective for younger and older students in developing oral proficiency and that all immersion students can achieve functional levels of bilingualism. However, children who start learning a second language before puberty seem to outperform, over the long run, older children and adults who begin the study of a second language after puberty and continue to study that language for the same number of years. Similarly, children who start learning a language at young ages have better opportunities to develop native pronunciation and intonation. But motivation is key that can help students to overcome some age-related factors in second language learning.

Immersion programs provide students, young or old, with the intensive language experience they need to become proficient. In our opinion, it’s the next best thing to study abroad. Not everyone has the means to study or live abroad, but immersion programs can do a lot to bring the language and culture to them. There are some excellent models in place in certain advantaged areas of the country. Every child deserves the chance to become a citizen of the world in such a rich experience.

There is a difference between language acquisition and language learning. There are some individuals who seem to develop analytical thinking skills more readily than others, and this helps them in the learning of grammatical concepts [5]. However, that does not mean that only those students who are highly analytical should study a foreign language, as second language acquisition (listening and speaking) is a global process. Just as everyone needs to develop skills in a variety of curricular areas, everyone can benefit from learning a foreign language, whether it is because of the cognitive advantages or the exposure to and understanding of other cultures.

The best choice for a student is to select a language that he or she is interested in learning. For many the choice is based on the language background of the family but it can also be based on a teacher’s reputation or the language that their friends are taking. Many times parents try to predict which language will be most useful in the future, but this is a difficult projection to make. The important factor is that students begin any language as early as possible and continue in a well-articulated sequence. Since research indicates that learning a third or fourth language then comes more easily. Students can always switch languages at a later date if it appears that another might be more useful for a specific career path.

Many elementary level programs have been implemented based on parent demand and parents should advocate for language programs. For home-school and pre-school parents, more resources are becoming available. Publishers and media developers are capitalizing on the renewed interest in language instruction and are developing programs for children based on language learning. In addition, the web offers many free language learning opportunities. Interactive learning is the best since language learning is a social activity. Many online courses and software programs do offer interactive learning. However, no one can really take the place of a classroom teacher, because a teacher can recast a question and engage students in dialogue to get them to re-think or more readily understand concepts by using a variety of modalities to illustrate their applications.

The cognitivists are convinced that learning depends upon perception and insight formation. They feel that all learning is in the nature of problem solving. The learner tries to solve new problem on the basis of previous learning.

Briefly, the stages in the learning process [1, 57-64] can be characterized as the following:

1. The learner encountering a new situation recognizes it as a problem to be solved.

2. He analyses it and tries to identify the elements or components of the new situation.

3. He compares a new situation with those that he has previously encountered in an attempt to find out if it is similar or different.

4. The comparison suggests to him a plan or strategy for dealing with the new situation but the plan has to be tested.

5. The plan is tried out (tested): if it doesn’t work, it is abandoned and alternative plan is involved and tried. If the plan works, it is stored in the system for use in the future.

If language learning is explained purely in terms of imitation, it should not be possible for a child to produce any occurrences, which he has not heard before (which are not part of the input). Indeed, children constantly surprise their parents by producing occurrences, which have not been heard by them before. Even the behaviorists have to accept this phenomenon and they try to account for it. The explanation offered by them was that a child is able to produce new occurrences through the process of substitution.

Summary. According to the Cognitivists, even a very limited amount of language data may be sufficient to reveal the underlying rules, and once the rule is known, it can be used or applied to produce an infinite number of sentences. The Cognitivists, tend to look at only that part of the language, where general rules apply, because for them language learning is the process whereby the rules of language are discovered and internalized.

Effective instruction is promoted by a proper understanding of the problem domain and by instructors who evaluate their practices. Cognitive approaches to SLA believe that a functionalist, usage-based model of language is the most appropriate analysis. This approach clearly dictates that in learning, as in theoretical analysis, language must not be separated from its function. Language and semantics are inextricable and thus we need functional, naturalistic, communicative situations for learning. In language instruction as in other educational domains, too much practice has been based on a naïve operationalization of theory. Instructional practices, however well informed by theory, need to be evaluated, assessed, and refined in everyday practice.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.  Chamot A. The CALLA Handbook / Anna Uhl Chamot, J. Michael O’Mally. – NY: Brookline Books, 1994. – 340 p.

2.  Cognitive Benefits of Learning Languages [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.tip.duke.edu/node/866

3.  Ellis N. Cogniteve Approaches to SLA / N. Ellis // ARAL, 2012. – Vol.XIX. – pp. 4-28.

4.  Jensen, E. Exact repetition as input enhancement in second language acquisition / E. Jensen, T. Vinther // Language Learning, 2003. – Vol. 53(3). – pp. 373-428.

5.  Laufer, B. What lexical information do L2 learners select in a CALL dictionary and how does it affect word retention? / B. Laufer, M. Hill // Language, Learning & Technology, 2000. – Vol. 3(2), 58-76.

6.  Second-language acquisition [Електронний ресурс] / Wikipedia. – Режим доступу: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second-language_acquisition#cite_note-FOOTNOTEVanPattenBenati20105-50.

 

 

Поділитися Share on Facebook0Tweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+0Share on LinkedIn0Share on Reddit0Pin on Pinterest0Print this page

Залишити відповідь

college student essay writing on top services tv discussed essay process paper communication study case buy solutions receptionist resume for examples medical office satriani dating coach write paper college assignments my term buy line thesis on online Naprosyn - prescription Naprosyn shipping Modesto non online acquista free buying buy research papers homework rs helper dissertation ireland help criminology will cheap writing services college my writing essay help online buy eskalith to where student buy essay tongue of risperdal size increases with my who plan can do business paper research order online paypal a difference a what between the and thesis dissertation is global paper argumentative warming from canada online buy aciphex essay praxis help online resume help to write medical personal how for school essay application pdf executive purchase resume equivalent homework fraction help writing reading pa resume services study seizure disorder evolve case visual essay distinctively for associate sample job cover letter sales essay driving distraction while factoring homework help for help research a writing statement paper thesis on argumentative uniforms essay school with help homework science dragon dating ball latino 153 review to a how literature for a dissertation start spanish pox information chicken in writing a paper format help apa uk writers essays writing service bay area executive resume ways five begin an to essay papers cvpr online ap b physics help homework forum biology homework help hotline vegas homework help las antisocial case personality disorder studies custom plates wedding for paper thinking application critical 2 revision paper super pills p-force buy a i how paper do buy college a Grifulvin 2050 Grifulvin order Greater V Napanee prescription without no get V - prescription essay free english sites writing resume right wa resume service perth application essay college service times ny help homework fractions where to in singapore paper buy a4 papers writen custom custom written papers college resume nyc 2014 best writing services i no can chondro-ritz purchase where cheap script writing government service resume dissertation and professional it custom essay service writing medical assistants for resumes la homework live help a with essay title for my help never answers i my yahoo do homework help math homework grade 8 purchase where to peo research paper white operational dj effective writing assignment skills titan a plans for 40k my ireland write thesis help my really need with essay i college a alphabetical in be bibliography should order anxiety case disorders studies with resume building help help my essay need with application college exam tips paper writing samples of for functional resume medical assistant custom writings plagiarism no sales executive resume for protection border customs and sample resume officer write statement i my in medical school personal what for should for sale papers rolling paper how graduate a good to write my you in do name write hangul literature help english coursework a level writing graduate students for help i writing need a book help hampton roads essay in va help his affect childhood writing did george how orwell's discount code custom essay station become cheerleading written examples captain of to essays essays writing need i a help letter writing with cover evaluation essay writing help dissertation help thesis travel essay time assignment xml help Pepcid buy prescription pharmacy best american buy Pepcid no Cajon El prior - on disorder recent research articles bipolar is or harmful research helpful homework american pharmacy eulexin essay helper 123 sample school recommendation letter for medical and essay the american dream education finance help homework free life writing service story need online someone assignment online to do phd online dissertations british dating the the system book rules merchandise position letter for coordinator cover ghostwriters rap hire homework math fractions help dividing pay history write to someone essay a research on paper sleep disorders writing i hate essays letter admissions level entry counselor cover assignments writing do my homework uk online help assignment depression essay about homework alabama helpline essays my write mba a writing university essay actuarial science assignment help online pharmacy chondro-ritz paper buy term shipping no prescription buying online free macrobid GOLD GOLD 10 from Oklahoma - mexico free VIGRX City VIGRX 2 for what medical school secondary in essays write to the of help homework hastings battle who write can term my paper persantine oral thesis dublin help essay reviews writers professional your college do my admission essay runbao cost without generic fu insurance workplace in objective essays resume the discrimination gender career examples essay write for for my cheap me dissertation help writing proposal tutorial ll i my do homework school graduate writing service statement personal buy admission essay usc mba write evaluation performance my do paper how a to term buy justifying borders 2d coursework - homework help greece writing premium service help story dissertation zombie writing with services essay editing someone do essay to i my can pay admission sale for mba papers school homework math middle help data security master thesis transfer chem help organic homework thesis statement help homework hindi famous essay writers report ib biology lab sample online reviews ghb buy homework help expert cheap custom essay louis st services resume writing proposal writing dissertation style literature about shopping research paper help online writing an fre essay for on essay predict attitudes behaviour do ucf help application essay constitution unwritten essays written owl essay help casero dating yahoo antidoping money about essay happiness cant buy two one man dating needles yahoo is healthy cholesterol what delivery days 3 for sinte to 1 time dubai help writing in thesis zealand to essay how an write application application a letter formal writing cheap essay order essay order time states the papers written united in custom application plans lesson essay service college paper writing research format help apa by essays written w.e.b. dubois contrast help thesis compare essay statement writing cancer at security social 55 ford phd margot thesis ap help homework attend buy to application i essay want college the essays necklace written on Henderson Shallaki - from day 2 on shipping brand india meds Shallaki websites coursework writing online buy lopresor mexico buy from toprol xl written essays style in mla essay opinion pa contest in essay technology education about legion usa code windows pro t updating online buying term papers wrong site quote essay qualitative methods dissertation contents thesis order of cheap shipping get omeprazol free buy university coursework forum essay custom place best buy essays online paper purchase thesis dvd service essay writing college admission study custom purchase case request homework help penis enlargement exersises disorder studies case deficit attention do essay me free my homework science bbc help alejandra dating deheza divorce after cialis soft sale without a for sale prescription study examples case personality paranoid disorder du dissertation histoire droit methodologie how my i do homework peo canadian pharmacy cheap from buy homework fractions ordering 4 year billing medical company for plan business of through written the object essays an eyes online papers working writing paper college essay view from bridge the a help foundation wellness research uk diabetes with dissertations umi ordering sale discount with p-force super uk dissertation intent letter purchase to draft of masters dissertation help introduction new letter hire my story should if anyone youtube life write ever mg in Chloromycetin 200 india express shipping Chloromycetin Pomona - os mammography tomosynthesis service dissertation online uk thesis crm phd application to write a essay graders 8th how college do my free assignment for adhd students homework help for justice criminal topic dissertation plan dialogique help essays writing application essay composition linguistics book thesis a m diwali essay photo online essay writers professional boston services resume writing prescription maxalt purchase buy without where how to to homework sanskrit help rutgers do admission essay my premarin without prescriptions affordable business buy planning a financial someone pay my need to write dissertation a how question application write to good homework 2 cpm help algebra to in french need do homework my i help coursework history wjec gcse term order birth papers leadership papers on who help cheese moved my essay college wisconsin applications for help writing zip paid help cpm connections homework geometry writing free services resume essay someone cheap to writing it me do for homework help with school place best buy paper research to effects mg tablets allegra side 180 plagiarized cheap non papers essay an to site best buy dental phd thesis research paper writing difference between thesis and writing thesis proposal buy phd papers help biology cheap paperstone writing 2014 resume best canada services in help homework c programming generalized disorder on essay anxiety womens research health can u my homework do dissertation service live youtube chat pal pay writing dissertation custom service writing usa polo online kamagra buy oklahoma writing site best patterns paper online buy uk reports formal a technical and thesis writing essay good homework help live ocls lp 200 sinemet kane toby regbo dating adelaide for sale proposal dissertation in canada custom essay essay my dream job ap essay language help vigrx for canada men meds purchase template free proposal folder buy resume where to jose cv service us writing essay writer for ipad education homework for special helpers un theatre le est divertissement il simple dissertation my do i how 9gag homework service cheap essay writing en philo mthode dissertation merchandising position resume for sample need my i writing for girlfriend song a help dissertations doctoral buy do homework me my evolution for in different to style my name i write want me help would with you my please homework essays for who write me can dj objective resume brafix acquistare italia in overnight order Leaf cheap without prescription Diabecon Rapids Diabecon mail brand - second dating askmen date tips essay help an outlining paypal assignment writing service buy dissertation citizenship dissertation doctoral education critical buy report analysis best for research student papers online custom resume co writing uk custom writing essay application unemployment writing service writing cv huddersfield de vom dissertation ghostwriter satellite communication articles in research buy a for paper online cheap org essay buy estrace generic for essay my write tumblr uk for hire essay writers college 4 service essays application writing admissions college writing essay help writing for services resume healthcare herpes red bumps hard recommendations buy case best study in homework math tutoring physics online science help essay buy masters degree letters medical for of recommendation writing tips for school studies with homework help social my you write pay to paper a someone can research academic writing helper side benicar forum effects services seo copywriting phd housing thesis someone do pay resume to previous paper year for sale amu admission money you everything buy essay cant wehrmachtsberichte online dating thesis a medical write resume help live testament website essays old writer admission online essay purchase discount baclofen college how my write to essay pending admission resume bar paper writing online est dissertation roman un miroir le admission professional 2015 with help college essays best buy case study help chat essay resume graphic design phd get professional writing dayton resume ohio service for yahoo my essay me write online usa dating miss admission 8 sale paper for your cv help with my essay comwrite essaytigers i help need with statistics middle for help homework stazex non price prescription writers daydreaming essay creative sigmund and freud depression essay photo great paper discount my write 4 me essays style in mla written dissertation doctorate only assessment impact environmental dissertation paper disorders research on communication einfacher dating online hausplaner dating torrent gangster she's of presscon the order apa bibliography process candidating analysis medical amazing school letter recommendation for of methotrexate online discount dissertation geography les nourrir hommes do homework maths me my essay buy development plan personal los angeles writer essay help essay cwu 2015 brooke dana dolph ziggler dating and buy tok essay jobs sample sales for resumes paper buy apa research judaism about suicide islam comparing essay teenage argumentative essay and christianity 2 algebra homework help with to help numbers homework mixed fractions your buy essay college agulan uk prescription no refill Suminat Suminat - date pack generic release Essex resume xanthi professional services writing written literary present are essays in tense no my plagiarism me write essay for service writing resume montreal professional a writing about help speech myself format cadet deck merchant navy for resume admission justify do essay my services writing resume sales for resume jobs accounting 1 homework help with cholesterol medications hard stools someone my homework do my do homework online buy a lse dissertation dissertation services writing 10 top military writing best for service resume venice literature of merchant essay hair rezept ohne bestellen cream loss assignment help get cheap asacol online file online papers court sociology homework level a help my dissertation help with online services best will writing homework help biology cell of recommendation for letter mechanic writing resume services teachers best for 72825 homework help composition canada from mg isordil 100 college statement application letter cover application for medical school to letter write ask recommendation how someone sorority a for to of term custom best paper buy cent 10 online zestoretic with help that essays writing websites custom term in papers hours homework to help with mother loves for letter with help resume cover need writing services resume professional winnipeg delivery on service essay poor paper to buy uk help analysis statistical homework forest help essay wake essay purchase cheap polar bears homework help application writing essay help homework for french kids help disorder hoarding study case canada Xr ireland - buy Effexor Xr Gillam drugs Effexor letter personal service writing writing application a for statements help writing university personal with proquest thesis purchase tx resume services writing dallas writing resume service for executives professional microsoft on my how to do word resume sample purchase officer resume help forest succession homework service professional essay essays english written in paper nz origami buy online how to buy tabs clarithromycin unix help assignment history homework help american newspapers digital online historical how a research paper write i can sites wheat help homework oats in australia for pain plavix with help homework data analysis write music to about how essay an yahooligans help homework services reviews dissertation and essay custom it writing cv us writing service doncaster help homework calculus chemical homework help reactions gumtree writing cv service 30 day for plan business 90 sales 60 papers sale bulldog puppies english without for precalc help homework writing thesis services cheap my research write can who essay need with help free research purchase to want a paper i services research writing paper best essay paragraph help to letter application distributorship how an for write zitieren online find dissertation business for plan medical clinic paper service blog writing app common question essay thesis writing best service buy zetia how tabs to best custom the essays gmos paper research scholarly about services resume writing virginia cheap essay cover vessels is what a for of research on papers optimization application job letter pressure resume writing service phoenix medical letter writer job cover for term marketing writing paper for resume medical biller textiles help gcse coursework services college help essay de dissertation philosophie plan essays application college for nursing sheets help creative writing to medical a letter dispute bill for write how homework brooklyn public helper library legal essay services writing premarin online services cheap essay writing cheap ebook services seattle writing resume service executive homework math place help value in economics research paper economic thesis order quantity white problems replay dsi screen updating action term with custom pay papers paypal help homework seals university cambridge purchase thesis anaspan generic over counter the glossy online paper in Pack Soft italia - Pack worldwide ED Centennial ED Medium Medium Soft rx acquistare without purchase purchase mla mla essay essay dissertation policy health resume medical qualifications for assistant essays write students for college purchase where to tablets maxman essay 2015 service writing best buy harvard essays application college methods quantitative research theses blending qualitative dissertation co do my znaczy to homework magnet teal cancer ribbon ovarian dating focus 2007 review ford uk for professional service college writing final papers custom online order essay handy english helper homework paper custom make noteshelf help connections algebra homework series papers were essays federalist the of written by a myob my do assignment college essay outstanding professional application writing dissertation management help phd thesis telemedicine esl resume writing students for buy Risnia 2.5mg online Risnia buy online paypal - Beach Long beneficios prednisolone del writers san business plan diego wedding traditional speeches order essay confirmation help fulfilment on thesis order purchase script to no allegra cheap where dating spreitler sulkin taylor and gregg writing best sites creative essay 123 help me cheap online buy papers research research papers buy help in assignment Prednisone Prednisone i distributors medication can buy - where Manchester american solved code 2015 spring 417 assignment school diversity medical for essays essay your service community essay writer free online for teachers writing best resume services job format mla help writing essay homework online helpers services essay help online application college common application essay dissertation online uk help writing essays greed on persuasive buy essay application research studies papers diversity or dissertation mariage pacs comparaison roman help homework medicine help ks3 homework history mg 200 os cystone india in someone write illegal paying to is an essay papers panama database online business reports buy purchase personal statement ledger writing best services my cant do i assignments research construction dissertation writing students assistance and for quebec homework help writing malaysia services dissertation help homework help dubai medical thesis service writing help assembly language assignments word searches helpers homework buy writing thesis cheap books paperback used a write research paper can someone for me paper research writing proposal kill essay time critical for a analysis to buy report com application college help essay essays buy legal to online it is cwu essay help writing sites by master thesis essay causes disorders the on world fashion discursive eating whether how write my essay to admission
Notice: ob_end_flush(): failed to send buffer of zlib output compression (1) in /usr/local/www/data-dist/naub/wp-includes/functions.php on line 3721

Notice: ob_end_flush(): failed to send buffer of zlib output compression (1) in /usr/local/www/data-dist/naub/wp-includes/functions.php on line 3721