АСОЦІАТИВНИЙ ЗВ’ЯЗОК КОНЦЕПТУ INSULARITY З КОНЦЕПТАМИ SOLITARINESS, ISOLATION ТА NARROW-MINDEDNESS

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УДК 811.111’42

БурдейнаО.Р.

Чернівецький національний університет ім.. Ю. Федьковича

 

У статті зроблено спробу визначити втілення базових семантичних ознак концепту INSULARITY в лексиці, яка об’єктивує концептиSOLITARINESS, ISOLATION та NARROW-MINDEDNESS, для встановлення зв’язку між концептами.

Ключові слова: концепт, семантична ознака, синонімічний ряд.

В статье предпринята попытка определить реализацию семантических признаков концепта INSULARITY в лексике, которая объективирует концептыSOLITARINESS, ISOLATION и NARROW-MINDEDNESS, для установления связи между концептами.

Ключевые слова: концепт, семантический признак, синонимический ряд.

The article focuses on the realization of the semantic features of the conceptINSULARITY in lexis, which verbalizes concepts SOLITARINESS, ISOLATION and NARROW-MINDEDNESS, to trace the connection between concepts.

Key words: concept, semantic feature, synonymic row.  

Мета статті полягає в окресленні поняттєво-концептуального підґрунтя для встановлення зв’язку між концептом INSULARITYта концептами SOLITARINESS, ISOLATION та NARROW-MINDEDNESS через співставлення базових семантичних ознак в семантиці лексем, вербалізуючих  вищезгадані концепти. Поставлена мета передбачає вирішення таких завдань:встановлення узагальненого списку понять, асоційованих з insularity,  розгляд реалізації семантичних ознак в лексичній семантиці слів, які лексикалізують досліджувані концепти.

Проблематика взаємодії когнітивних та мовних парадигм перебуває у фокусі дослідження багатьох українських та закордонних лінгвістів: О.П. Воробйова, С.А. Жаботинська, Л. І. Бєлєхова, В.І. Карасик, Т.Б. Радбіль, О.С. Кубрякова та ін..  

Матеріалом дослідження слугували статті лексикографічних джерел та  лексичні одиниці, відібрані з друкованих та електронних текстів журналів та газет British National Corpus [1].

На базі аналізу 15 тлумачних словників було виявлено 6 значень лексеми insular, 3 схожих значення insularity, 1 дефініція insularly та 4 визначення insulate. Згідно даних семантичних ознак складемо узагальнений список  понять, які асоціюються з insularity: 1) вузькість в поглядах, 2) самотність, 3) ізольованість. Відповідно до понять, асоційованих із insularityвизначимо базові концепти, з якими співвідноситься INSULARITY.

Концепт INSULARITY асоціюється із концептом SOLITARINESS. Один із ЛСВ субстантива insularity експлікується як “the state of being isolated or detached”, ад’єктив insular детермінується як “isolated; standing alone; detached” та включає в синонімічний ряд синоніми solitary, sole. Таким чином, даний концепт надає людині характеристику відокремленості від інших.

Синонімічний ряд концепту САМОТНІСТЬ наповнюється 22 синонімами: confinement,desert,detachment, emptiness, isolation, loneliness, lonesomeness, privacy, quarantine, reclusiveness, retirement, seclusion, separateness, silence, singleness, solitude, waste, wasteland, wilderness, withdrawal, loneness, peace and quiet. Прикметник solitaryнараховує 44 синоніми: lone, lonely, singular, individual, particular, remote, separate, sole, solo, stag, aloof, antisocial, cloistered, companionless, deserted, desolate, distant, eremetic, forsaken, friendless, hermitical, hidden, introverted, isolated, lonesome, lorn, misanthropic, offish, only, out-of-the-way, reclusive, reserved, retired, secluded, sequestered, standoffish, unaccompanied, unapproachable, unattended, uncompanionable, unfrequented, unique, unsocial, withdrawn [5], з яких 6 прикметників є спільнокореневими із вищезгаданими іменниками.

Прикметник solitary характеризується наступними семантичними ознаками:

1)               без друзів, самотній (alone; without companions; unattended):

In his chagrin he wandered up on to Moel Siabod above his home, where a clump of purple flowers amongst the grey rocks of the mountain caught his eye, just as they might that of some solitary wanderer today.                [1, 4     A15W_pop_lore]                                                                                                                

2)               добровільний відхід від суспільства (living alone; avoiding

the society of others):

I don’t drink, I don’t use drugs, I live a pretty solitary life.[1, 11CK6W_pop_lore]

3)               фізично відокремлений (by itself; alone):

Provide solitary plants with individual defences, such as snail-proof rings of soot or grit, or brassica collars to foil cabbage root fly.          [1, 3A0GW_pop_lore]

4)                який характеризується тимчасовою відсутністю друзів:

He surrounds himself with an entourage of loyal courtiers, some from the store, others from the office, taking several at a time for convivial weekends of dog-walking, tennis and log fires at his country villa on the River Po – a sharp contrast to the rather gloomy, solitary week nights he spends in the industrial wasteland of the Via Borgonuovo.                                                        [1, 8A7PW_pop_lore]

5)               відсутність супроводження, допомоги від когось (done

without assistance or accompaniment) [2]

Solitary work also has its pleasures.                               [1, 57FBLW_pop_lore]

6)               примусове ізолювання (confinement):

After a brief show trial they were put in solitary confinement in appalling conditions until March this year.                [1, 14A46W_newsp_brdsht_nat_report]

Розглянемо позитивні та негативні конотації самотності на прикладі втілення різних семантичних ознак лексеми solitaryта solitude:

Негативну імплікацію можна деталізувати в наступних прикладах:

1)               самотнє життя, яке викликає депресію:

It is a terrible, solitary kind of life, whereby I can not for instance have people with whom Ican discuss my writing, unless I leave the country and meet people like Bessie Head, who died, or Buchi Emecheta and Ama Ata Aidoo.                            

                                                                              [1, 68HSLW_pop_lore]

2)               один, єдиний (недостатній):

During the four days we spent on Elgon we saw no other people and only one solitary gazelle.                                                                    [1, 5  A15W_pop_lore]

         3)      без друзів, без компанії:

Trainers can help to make exercises more exciting, safe and enjoyable than a solitary routine, and can vary and intensify your exercise programme to suit your enthusiasm andfitness level.                                                [1, 19ARJ   W_pop_lore]

Позитивна семантика САМОТНОСТІ реалізується в таких прикладах:

1)               усамітнення:

Although the walking on the other ranges had been enjoyable, it was particularly pleasing to be in this wild and seldom-visited area, and to enjoy the unique feelings of solitude and peace that only mountains can inspire.                                                                    

                                                                                [1, 1A15W_pop_lore]

2)               приватність, невтручання в особисте життя:

Like my father I love books and solitude and I flee from publicity, the brutality of the media, interviews where they try to get the interviewee to say things he doesn’t really think, as though to catch him out.                                                                                                 

                                                                                   [1, 6    CKTW_pop_lore]                                                                                        

3)               тиша, або спокій якрезультат усамітненості місця :

The system operated by the park authorities to limit numbers into the Canyon can be tiresome and bureaucratic, although it helps to retain the essential peace, solitude and ecology of the area.                                  [1, 19     CHKW_pop_lore]                                                  

Отже, розглядаючи пов’язаність концептів САМОТНІСТЬ та ОСТРІВНІСТЬ знаходимо точку дотику в семантичній ознаці “відокремленість, самотність, ізольованість”, яка підкреслює індивідуалізм даних концептів, характерний для острівних жителів. Таким чином, дана ознака найповніше розкривається та доповнюється концептом САМОТНІСТЬ, включаючи такі компоненти значення як “добровільне усамітнення; примусове ізолювання; який характеризується самостійним виконанням певної роботи; якому властива відсутність інших людей; який виражається одиничністю за кількістю”, а також позитивними та негативними конотаціями вищезгаданих значеннєвих компонентів.

Концепт INSULARITY взаємозв’язаний із концептом ISOLATION в етимологічному та семантичному ракурсі. Етимологічно два концепти поєднуються спільністю латинського походження та подібністю коренів, які під впливом інтра- та екстралінгвістичних явищ дещо видозмінились.

Термін insularity дефініюється як “thestateofbeingisolatedordetached”, ад’єктив insularяк “physically isolated; detached; isolated life of an island”, дієслово insulateяк  toisolate”, що свідчить про поєднання двох концептів на базі ознаки “ізолювання”.

Синонімічний ряд isolation включає наступні лексеми кількістю 22 одиниці: confinement, desolation, remoteness, segregation, solitude, aloneness, aloofness, concealment, detachment, exile, hiding, privacy, privateness, quarantine, reclusiveness, retreat, sequestration, withdrawal, beleaguerment, monkhood, reclusion, seclusiveness. Прикметник isolated пов’язаний семантично з такими лексемами (25 синонімів): deserted, lonely, outlying, unusual, abandoned, forsaken, retired, screened, single, stranded, abnormal, anomalous, apart, backwood, exceptional, far-out, incommunicado, lonesome, off beaten track, out-of-the-way, random, special, unaccompanied, unfrequented, unrelated; а також із ад’єктивами, утвореними від синонімів isolation.

Згідно значеннєвого спектру понять insularity та isolation виявляємо схожість майже всіх поняттєвих ознак, за винятком семантичного компоненту insularity “віднесеності до, або формування острову” та узагальнюємо спільну сему – “примусове/добровільне ізолювання, відокремлення”.

Деталізуємо негативні конотативні характеристики поняття isolation.

1)               примусова ізоляція:

WHY: Bad living conditions and lack of space are facts of British prison life; but for many prisoners the greatest hardship is isolation.        [1, 13ABS   W_pop_lore]

2)               самотність, прагнення до усамітнення:

The artists Munch, Strindberg and Hill explored themes of despair and isolation, and this, coupled with an element of chance in their work, marks them out as precursors of the Expressionist movement.                         [1, 41CC0     W_pop_lore]                                                                                   

3)               переживання негативних емоцій, спричинених соціальною,

політичною відокремленістю у поєднанні із, наприклад, дискримінацією, або самотністю:

At the 1985 Women’s Hearings on Reproductive Technology at the European Parliament, Theresia Degener recognised the difficulty, saying’ fear of the birth of a handicapped child is all too justified because for mothers it usually means isolation and discrimination, giving up their jobs and/or poverty.                                                                       

                                                                            [1, 97HSL  W_pop_lore]

Perhaps more difficult even than the financial juggling is the isolation and loneliness.                                             [1, 12AA8  W_newsp_brdsht_nat_misc]

In between came the almost arrogant announcement that President Bush had decided unilaterally to end the diplomatic isolation China had suffered since the massacre of Tiananmen Square.           [1, 14AAF      W_newsp_brdsht_nat_misc]

Позитивне значення присутнє в наступному прикладі:

1)               затишність, усамітненість місця:

The island’s isolation and woodsy beauty have made it wildly popular in the past few years; prices for many single homes have jumped above $300,000.

                                                                                     [1, 8ABH   W_pop_lore]

Таким чином, поняття острівності та ізолювання володіють майже однаковими семантичними ознаками, що свідчить про подібність концептів. Ознаки insularity в семантичних ознаках isolation конкретизуються як примусове/добровільне ізолювання, географічне/політичне/соціальне ізолювання і т.д.

Острівність співвідноситься із концептом NARROWMINDEDNESS за семантичною ознакою вузькість в поглядах (ignorant of or uninterested in anything except your own country; unwilling to meet new people; closed to new ideas; characteristic of the inhabitants of an island; having, or reflecting a narrow provincial viewpoint; narrow-minded; circumscribed; illiberal; contracted;  provincial; detached/narrowly restricted in outlook/scope and experience). Термін narrow-mindedдефініюється як having or showing a prejudiced mind, as persons or opinions; biased; not receptive to new ideas; having a closed mind[2]. Поняття narrow-mindedness визначається як “an inclination to criticize opposing opinions or shocking behavior” [3]. Отже, дані лексикографічних джерел підтверджують наявність прямої семантичної ознаки insularity в понятті narrowmindedness.

Синонімічний ряд субстантиву нараховує 9 синонімів: narrow margin, slimness, narrowness [3], prejudice, bigotry, intolerance, dogmatism, racism, injustice [4]. Прикметник narrow-minded включає 6 ад’єктивів: biased, partial, illiberal, self-righteous, а також похідні лексеми від іменників.

Термін narrow-minded характеризується поняттєвими ознаками:

1)               упереджений (having or showing a prejudiced mind, as persons or opinions; biased):

Or he could start his own venue, impose his own narrow-minded door policy and see how few people turn up and how few bands agree toplay.

                                                                              [1, 9         HWX          W_pop_lore]

2)               обмежений (not receptive to new ideas; having a closed mind.):

It is arguable whether these routes are worthwhile, but it would be nice if everybody could judge this rather than some narrow-minded person not giving us the choice.                                                                         [1, 6  CG2W_pop_lore]

Дане поняття наповнене лише негативним змістом, відображаючи негативну характеристику людини, або її поглядів.

Отже, слово narrow-minded в англійській мові характеризує негативна конотація. “Вузькість в поглядах” виступає як базова семантична ознака концепту INSULARITY і вона повною мірою відображається в концепті NARROW-MINDEDNESS, конкретизуючись в семах “упередженість” та “обмеженість”.

Отже, лексична семантика слів, які вербалізують концептиSOLITARINESS, ISOLATION та NARROW-MINDEDNESS, наповнена базовими семантичними ознаками поняття insularity. У перспективі подальшого дослідження є розгляд базових семантичних ознак insularity в синонімах та асоціатах, а також в лексичній семантиці фразеологізмів та паремій, які входять до польової організації концепту INSULARITY.

ЛІТЕРАТУРА:

1. British National Corpus [Electronic resource]. – mode of  access: http: //corpus.byu.edu

2. Dictionary.com [Electronic resource]. – mode of  access: http:// dictionary. reference.com

3. Dictionary of synonyms [Electronic resource]. – mode of  access: http:// www.synonyms.net

4. Dictionary of synonyms [Electronic resource]. – mode of  access: http:// synonyms.woxikon.com

5. Thesaurus [Electronic resource]. – mode of  access: http://thesaurus.com

 

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