Поділитися Share on Facebook0Tweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+0Share on LinkedIn0Share on Reddit0Pin on Pinterest0Print this page

У даній статті розглядається роль ефекту тестування у довготривалій пам’яті. На сьогодні досить часто у педагогічній та когнітивній психології постає питання навчальної діяльності особистості, її успішності та ефективності. Опираючись на попередні дослідження ми дослідили 4 навчальні стратегії, які при підготовці апріорі використовують студенти. Одна із даних навчальних стратегій включала у себе часте тестування, що передбачає краще запам’ятовування. За проведеним дослідженням було виявлено позитивний та ефективний вплив тестування на навчальну діяльність особистості та на якість її запам’ятовування.

Memory is a mental phenomenon of fixing storing, and retrieving the past experience that enables its repeated usage in the further person’s life.

According to the time during which information is kept there distinguish the following kinds of memory:

  • sensory memory that lasts 0,2-0,5 seconds and helps the one to orientate oneself in the surroundings;
  • short-term memory that provides remembering one-off information for a short period of time, i.e. from a couple of seconds to a minute;
  • long-term memory that stores information for a long time;
  • working memory that appears while performing specific activity and is essential for its accomplishment at any given period of time.

Thus, we have decided to research influence of testing effect on the long-term memory.

Testing-effect is a researched and independent phenomenon.

The term “testing-effect” referres to the phenomenon of testing one’s memory not only for assessment of what they have already known but also for increasing capacity of further retrieval (Henry L. Roediger, III, and Jefferey D. Karpicke, 2006).

Testing increases capacity of further retrieval more than repeated studying of the material even though a test is given without reverse relation. This phenomenon is also called testing effect, and is studied by psychologists who work in the sphere of cognitive psychology. Today, the attempts to research testing effect have been renewed with new power in order to find out why studying is so effective, and suggest that strategy of testing is to be implemented into the modern system of education (Henry L. Roediger, III, and Jefferey D. Karpicke, 2006).

Nowadays testing and exams are only used to check students’ knowledge. Our research is aimed at proving that not only does testing check knowledge, but it also changes knowledge improving retrieval of the tested material. By testing material we may have better positive effect in future retrieval than by second learning of the same material, even though testing results appear to be far from excellent, and test is given without reverse relation or information is missed.

We believe that the testing-effect has an influence on the long-term memory. If it is uses in teaching, we can have better results. Students knowing that they will have test or check will learn more material. Moreover, testing has effect of training. Use of testing technique by students, teachers, pupils, etc. can train their long-term memory (that possible to designate as aforementioned influence). Also while using testing students will have a setting that it will be necessary to learn a material as they are expected to pass a check and consequently can grasp bigger amount of the material. However this point is not the most important. In comparison with the simple doctrine testing gives the chance not only to remember bigger quantity of material, but also to show good results at the further check (that gives the chance to recollect bigger amount of material at checking after some time).

Also when students use the testing, they have possibility to estimate more precisely and comment on that that they have remembered or have learnt. And in that situation we can talk not only about memory, but also of metamemory. That is why we can talk about influence of the testing effect on a long-term memory when we talk about testing trials. Importance and value of our research entails giving the chance to track a role and presence of influence of testing for long-term memory as well as metamemory. Also it gives the chance to choose from certain quantity of studying strategy one – the most effective.

The actuality of our research lies in of definition of strategy testing is used very seldom though it shows the best results.

The test is used approximately once on the module that is extremely seldom. In an ideal version during studying it will be better to use the testing more often, once a week, for example, that will stimulate students to get the best results.

The idea that testing improves keeping of material is not new. As early as in 1620 F. Bacon wrote: “If you read an extract from a text at least 20 times, you will not learn it as easy as when you read the same text 10 times and everytime try to retell it by referring to the parts of the text which your memory fails to remember’ (F. Bacon, 1620/2000, p.143; Henry L. Roediger, III, and Jeffrey D. Karpicke, 2006). By this quote F.Bacon highlighted the power of testing effect. In our research we will try to show that this hypothesis is correct and that the testing effect improves retrieval of material.

There exist a great number of experiments designed to research the testing effect. They are based on verbal studying that traditionally uses certain pairs of words (e.g., Hogan & Kintsch, 1971; Izawa, 1967; McDaniel & Masson, 1985; Thompson, Wenger, & Bartling, 1978; Tulving, 1967) or set of pictures (Wheeler & Roediger, 1992) as stimulating material. However, 17 years ago a scientists whose name is Glover made the following conclusion conserning the studied phenomenon: “Testing phenomenon has not passed but is forgotten”.

Gates (1917) and Spritzer (1939) also mentioned strong positive effect of testing on material retrieval. Tulving’s (1967) research results proved as well that testing effect exists, however, Lachman and Laughery (1968) decided to check reliability of these results. Their article asks: “Is a test trial a training trial in free recall learning?”, and then gives the answer “yes” relying on the results of scientists’ own experiment.

In 2006 Henry L. Roediger, III, and Jeffrey D. Karpicke also decided to check results of research described by Tulving. They used three conditions (standard, repeated study, and repeated test). They used 40 words and a 3-s rate of presentation, so that the accompanying tests lasted 2 min and time on study trials and recall tests remained equated. They examined learning curves and compared the conditions on the fife common test positions out of the total of 20 study and test trials. That is, every 4th trial was a test trial for all three conditions (standard: STST…; repeated-study: SSST…; and repeated test:STTT…), so they could directly compare recall on the 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th, and 20th trials across the three conditions. They also eliminated short-term memory effects that would normally disadvantage the repeated-test condition by using Tulving and Colotla’s (1970) method of separating short-term from long-term memory effects. Accordingly, having finished the experiment and elaborated the results Henry L. Roediger, III, and Jeffrey D. Karpicke found the phenomenon of testing effect.

Moreover, procedures developed to estimate and remove item-selection effects (when initial test performance differs across conditions) demonstrate that testing facilitates learning even when item-selection effects are present in the data. For example, Modigliani (1976) showed that increasing the delay before an initial test led to increasingly greater effects of testing (Jacoby, 1978; Karpicke & Roediger, 2006a), and when the enhancement effects due to testing were mathematically separated from itemselection effects, the positive effects of delaying the initial test were attributed entirely to enhancement effects, whereas item selection estimates remained invariant across the delays (and were quite negligible to begin with). Other procedures for handling item-selection problems were developed by Lockhart (1975) and Bjork, Hofacker, and Burns (1981) and show similar results. To conclude, the testing effect is not simply a result of additional exposure, or overlearning, or item-selection artifacts.

One explanation for why tests that require production, or recall, of material lead to greater testing effects than tests that involve identification, or recognition, is that recall tests require greater retrieval effort or depth of processing than recognition tests (Bjork, 1975; Gardiner et al., 1973). Bjork (1975) argued that depth of retrieval may operate similarly to depth of processing at encoding (e.g., Craik & Tulving, 1975), and that deep, effortful retrieval may enhance the testing effect. As already discussed, increasing the spacing of an initial test— which can be assumed to increase retrieval effort—promotes better retention (Jacoby, 1978; Karpicke & Roediger, 2006a; Modigliani, 1976), so long as material is still accessible and able to be recalled on the test (Spitzer, 1939) or feedback is provided after the test (Pashler et al., 2003). This positive testing effect probably reflects greater retrieval effort on delayed tests. Other evidence from different sorts of research also leads to the general conclusion that retrieval effort enhances later retention.

Gardiner et al. (1973) asked students general knowledge questions and measured the amount of time it took them to answer the questions. At the end of the session, they gave subjects a final free-recall test on the answers. The longer it took subjects to produce the answer to a question (indicating greater retrieval effort), the more likely they were to recall the answer on the final test (see also Benjamin, Bjork, & Schwartz, 1998). In a similar line of research, Auble and Franks (1978) gave subjects sentences that were initially incomprehensible (e.g., The home was small because the sun came out) and varied the amount of time before they provided a key word that made the sentences comprehensible (igloo). They found that the longer subjects puzzled over the incomprehensible sentences (making an ‘‘effort toward comprehension’’), the greater their retention of the sentences on a final test. These studies demonstrate the positive effects of retrieval effort on later retention, and the testing effect reflects another example of retrieval effort promoting retention.

Recently, Jacoby and his colleagues have obtained direct experimental evidence for different depths of retrieval in a memory-for-foils paradigm (Jacoby, Shimizu, Daniels,&Rhodes, 2005; Jacoby, Shimizu, Velanova, & Rhodes, 2005). In this type of experiment, subjects encode material under shallow or deep encoding conditions. During a first recognition test, subjects discriminate between old words that were studied under either the shallow or the deep conditions and new items (foils or lures). They are later given a second recognition test that assesses memory for the foils on the first test. For college students, having taken the first recognition test with the meaningfully studied (or deeply studied) items enhanced recognition of foils on the later test, compared with having taken the first test with the shallowly studied items. Interestingly, older adults did not show this difference (Jacoby, Shimizu, Velanova, & Rhodes, 2005), but for present purposes, the critical aspect of these studies is that manipulation of the depth of retrieval on the first test produced a large effect on recognition of the foils on the later test among younger adults.

Bjork and Bjork (1992) developed a theory to explain the testing effect and other effects of retrieval effort. They distinguished between storage strength, which reflects the relative permanence of a memory trace or permanence of learning, and retrieval strength, which reflects the momentary accessibility of a memory trace and is similar to the concept of retrieval fluency, or how easily the memory represented by the trace can be brought to mind. Their model assumes that retrieval strength is negatively correlated with increments in storage strength; that is, easy retrieval (high retrieval strength) does not enhance storage strength, whereas more effortful retrieval practice does enhance storage strength and promotes more permanent, longterm learning. However, because students often use the fluency of their current processing (retrieval strength) as evidence about the status of their current learning (e.g., see Jacoby, Bjork, & Kelly, 1994), they may elect poor study strategies. That is, students may choose strategies to maximize fluency of their current processing, even though conditions that involve nonfluent processing may be more beneficial to long-term learning. For example, students may prefer massed study (or repeated rereading) because it leads to fluent processing, although other strategies (such as spaced processing or effortful self-testing) would lead to greater long-term gains in knowledge.

We believe that the concept of transfer-appropriate processing offers an intuitive explanation for the somewhat counterintuitive testing effect, and for this reason, the concept may be useful in helping educators understand why taking tests should benefit learning—testing leads students to engage in retrieval processes that transfer in the long term to later situations and contexts. However, we note one drawback to this approach. One prediction that may be drawn from transfer-appropriate processing is that performance on a final test should be best when that test has the same format as a previous test. As we have shown, the general finding is that recall tests promote learning more than recognition tests, regardless of the final test’s format (e.g., Kang et al., in press). This result needs confirmation through additional experiments, but if it is true, it would seem to be good news for educators, because it would lead to a straightforward recommendation for educational practice. Nonetheless, the same outcome (e.g., better transfer from a short-answer test than from a multiple-choice test to a later multiple-choice test) may be construed as inconsistent with transfer-appropriate processing. However, it may not be inconsistent with the broader idea embodied in transfer-appropriate processing. If, for example, a final multiple-choice test requires effortful retrieval and a prior short-answer test fostered such effortful processes more than a prior multiple-choice test did, then it could be understandable that the prior short-answer test leads to better final performance than the prior multiple-choice test. We realize that such reasoning can quickly become circular and invulnerable to disconfirmation; the real challenge for the future is to specify how transfer-appropriate processing ideas apply to educational contexts so that they can be tested, as Thomas and McDaniel (in press) have recently done in one situation.

The testing effect cannot be explained by additional exposure to the material. This suggests that retrieval processes engaged in during a test are responsible for enhancing learning. More specifically, elaboration of encoding, more effortful or deeper encoding, and creation of different routes of access can account for the basic effect. Further, proponents of each of these ideas can point to evidence consistent with their viewpoint. The concept of transfer-appropriate processing is also congenial, albeit at a general level, to explaining the testing effect. It seems safe to say that empirical efforts to understand the testing effect have outstripped theoretical understanding, but the database is now firm enough to permit deeper understanding of the effect at a theoretical level and does permit the conclusive rejection of at least one prominent theory, that the testing effect is due to additional study, or overlearning.

Our research is influenced by the studies of Henry L. Roediger, III, and Jeffrey D. Karpicke (2008) who explored testing effect on the example of teaching strategies (standard: STST…; repeated-study: SSST…; and repeated test:STTT…).

In our case we will also use teaching strategies. However, the teaching strategies used in the design of our program will be a little altered. The research is intended to study three teaching strategies (ST, SnT, STn) and their results in 5 minutes in order to check short-term memory and in one month so that to survey long-term memory effects.


Our research is aimed at studying the testing-effect and its role in long-term memory. We carried out more accurate experiment devoted to sctutinization of the results received while conducting the experiment by Henry L. Roediger, III, and Jeffrey D. Karpicke, 2006. Thus, in order to perform the elaborated research, fulfil suggested tasks, and to accomplish advanced hypotheses we worked out a program of research as well as conducted an experiment. Forty eight respondents divided into three groups of 16 took part in the experiment.

Participants studied material using one proposed strategy out of three possible (ST, SnT, STn).


Forty eight participants took part in the research. All respondents were students or graduates of “Ostroh Academy” National University from 17-35 of age. Fourteen men and thirty-four women comprised the total number of participants.

Participants of the experiment did not have the previous experience of learning the Swedish language. However, they had experience of learning other foreign languages. They studied Russian, English, German, Polish, and Italian.

All 48 participants were divided into three groups of 16, but they did not have a possibility to take part in the experiment at the same time. They did it simultaneously in group of two. All the participants from every group were given the same tasks, instructions, and were shown the same 30 pairs of Swedish-Ukrainian words repeated in a random order.


In this experiment we used 30 pairs of Swedish-Ukrainian words that were painstakingly chosen, checked, and standardized specially for this research.

For standardization of words a pilot survey was carried out. Twenty respondents took a part in it. The total number of participants was composed of 8 men and 12 women from 17-19 years of age.

All of the participants were the second-year students of the Economics Department at “Ostroh Academy” National University. All the participants took part in pilot survey at one and the same time, were in the same conditions, and had the previous experience of learning foreign languages. They studied Russian, English, and German.

Hence, all of the 50 pairs of words were presented to the participants twice with the 9-second interval. After this, the participators retrieved these pairs of words. They were given Ukrainian word and asked to write its Swedish equivalent. Moreover, except for this, they had a task to assess pairs of words in accordance with the following categories: familiar-unfamiliar, abstract-concrete. Words that had the utmost characteristics were turned down. After having conducted the pilot survey and standardization of words Swedish-Ukrainian pairs of words have been chosen.

The aforementioned pairs of words were displayed by E-Prime program at two computers in a random order with a 5-second interval. Also the participants were given a form to write of what foreign languages they had had previous learning experience.


The participants of the experiment have been learning pairs of Swedish-Ukrainian words using one of three strategies. ST entails learning and testing all 30 pairs of words 4 times, STn involves learning all pairs of words and testing those with mistakes, SnT implies learning only the words with mistakes and testing all pairs of words (S-study, T-test). Learning and testing words was conducted four times, i.e. learning 4 times, and testing 4 times. The whole program covers 50 minutes. Five seconds were given for learning and eight – for retrieval.

In the end of the experiment the respondents were given a test to recall words learned 5 minutes or a month earlier.


At the beginning of the experiment the respondents were given a form to write of what foreign languages they had had previous learning experience.

Next, the main procedure of the experiment was performed. All 48 participants were formed in three groups of 16. Each group has been using one of the strategies for studying material. The first group used ST strategy (S-study, T-test). The participants learned and tested in succession all pairs of words.

The participators who used SnT strategy tested all 30 pairs of words, and studied only the words in which they had made mistakes at testing. Those respondents using STn strategy learned all of words, and tested only the ones in which they had made mistakes at the previous testing. In the end of the experiment participants checked their knowledge of Swedish-Ukrainian words learned 5 minutes earlier, after completion of the experiment, and in the period of one month.

The strategies had eight stages. The first stage is learning words, the second one is testing knowledge, the third – learning words, the fourth – testing pairs of words, the fifth – learning pairs of words, the sixth – checking knowledge, the seventh – studying material, and, finally, the eighth – testing. Also in 5 minutes after the experiment was carried out the respondents were tested on knowledge of the previously learned pairs of words as well as in a month from the moment the experiment was conducted.

The respondents from every group were instructed to do their best to memorize the pairs of words. They were given 5 seconds to learn one pair of words. When time passed program automatically switched to the next word. Eight seconds were given to the participants so that to retrieve the words. When time passed, program again automatically switched to next word. Generally, the program covers 50 minutes.

The participants were given 15 seconds to retrieve words learned 5 minutes earlier and one month from the moment the experiment was performed, then program automatically shifted to the next word.


The dropout learning conditions of the present experiment differed from the standard learning condition in that, once an item was successfully recalled once on a test, it was either dropped from study periods but still tested in one condition, dropped from test periods but still repeatedly studied in a second condition, or dropped altogether from both study and test periods in a third condition (Table 1).

Table 1. Conditions used in the experiment, average number of trials within each study or test period, and total number of trials in the learning phase in each condition. SN indicates that only vocabulary pairs not recalled in the previous test period were studied in the current study period. TN indicates that only pairs not recalled in the previous test period were tested in the current test period. Students in all conditions performed a 30-s distracter task that involved verifying multiplication problems after each study period.

Figure 1 shows the cumulative proportion of word pairs recalled during the learning phase, which gives credit the first time a student recalled a pair. We also analyzed traditional learning curves (the proportion of the total list recalled in each test period) for the two conditions that required recall of the entire list (ST and SnT), and the results by the two measurement methods were identical. Thus, we restrict our discussion to the cumulative learning curves on which all four conditions can be compared. Figure 1 shows that performance was virtually perfect by the end of learning (i.e., all 30 English target words were recalled by nearly all subjects). More importantly, there were no differences in the learning curves of the three conditions.

                                                                                                                           Fig. 1. Cumulative performance during the learning phase.

At the end of the learning phase, students in all four conditions were asked to predict how many of the 30 pairs they would recall on a final test in 1 month. They were then dismissed and returned for the final test a month later. Of key importance were the effects of the three learning conditions on the speed with which the vocabulary words were learned, on students’ predictions of their future performance, and on long-term retention assessed after a 1 month delay.

The mean number ofwords predicted to be recalled in each conditionwere as follows: ST = 18.8, SnT = 13.4, STn =22.0. An analysis of variance did not reveal significant differences among the conditions (F < 1).

The mean proportion of idea units recalled on the final tests afterthe three retention intervals is shown in Figure 2 and 3. The cumulative recall data showed that subjects had exhausted their knowledge by the end of the retention interval and are not reported here.

Fig. 2. Mean proportion of idea units recalled on the final test after a 5-min retention interval as a function of learning condition.

Fig. 3. Mean proportion of idea units recalled on the final test after a 1-month retention interval as a function of learning condition.

The results were submitted to a 2×3 analysis of variance (ANOVA), with learning condition (restudying or testing) and retention interval (5 min, or 1 month) as independent variables. This analysis revealed a main effect of testing versus restudying, F(1, 117)536.39, Zp 2 5.24, which indicated that, overall, initial testing produced better final recall than additional studying. Also, the analysis revealed a main effect of retention interval, F(2, 117) 5 50.34, Zp 2 5 .46, which indicated that forgetting occurred as the retention interval grew longer. However, these main effects were qualified by a significant Learning Condition _ Retention Interval interaction, F(2, 117) 5 32.10, Zp 2 5 .35, indicating that restudying produced better performance on the 5-min test, but testing produced better performance on 1-month tests.


Our experiment also speaks to an old debate in the science of memory, concerning the relation between speed of learning and rate of forgetting . Our study shows that the forgetting rate for information is not necessarily determined by speed of learning but, instead, is greatly determined by the type of practice involved. Even though the four conditions in the experiment produced equivalent learning curves, repeated recall slowed forgetting relative to recalling each word pair just one time.

Importantly, students exhibited no awareness of the mnemonic effects of retrieval practice, as evidenced by the fact that they did not predict they would recall more if they had repeatedly recalled the list of vocabulary words than if they only recalled each word one time. Indeed, questionnaires asking students to report on the strategies they use to study for exams in education also indicate that practicing recall (or self-testing) is a seldom-used strategy. If students do test themselves while studying, they likely do it to assess what they have or have not learned, rather than to enhance their long-term retention by practicing retrieval. In fact, the conventional wisdom shared among students and educators is that if information can be recalled from memory, it has been learned and can be dropped from further practice, so students can focus their effort on other material. Research on students’ use of self-testing as a learning strategy shows that students do tend to drop facts from further practice once they can recall them. However, the present research shows that the conventional wisdom existing in education and expressed in many study guides is wrong. Even after items can be recalled from memory, eliminating those items from repeated retrieval practice greatly reduces long-term retention. Repeated retrieval induced through testing (and not repeated encoding during additional study) produces large positive effects on long-term retention.


  1. Bjork, R.A. (1975). Retrieval as a memory modifier: An interpretation of negative recency and related phenomena. In R.L. Solso (Ed.), Information processing and cognition: The Loyola symposium (pp. 123–144). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  2. Bjork, R.A. (1988). Retrieval practice and the maintenance of knowledge. In M.M. Gruneberg, P.E. Morris, & R.N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory: Current research and issues (Vol. 1, pp. 396–401). New York: Wiley.
  3. Bjork, R.A. (1994). Memory and metamemory considerations in the training of human beings. In J. Metcalfe & A. Shimamura (Eds.), Metacognition: Knowing about knowing (pp. 185–205). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  4. Gates, A.I. (1917). Recitation as a factor in memorizing. Archives of Psychology, 6(40).
  5. Glover, J.A. (1989). The ‘‘testing’’ phenomenon: Not gone but nearly forgotten. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 392–399.
  6. Hogan, R.M.,&Kintsch,W. (1971). Differential effects of study and test trials on long-term recognition and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 10, 562–567.
  7. Izawa, C. (1967). Function of test trials in paired-associate learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 75, 194–209.
  8. Rawson, K.A., & Kintsch,W. (2005). Rereading effects depend on time of test. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 70–80.
  9. Roediger, H.L., III. (1990). Implicit memory: Retention without remembering. American Psychologist, 45, 1043–1056.
  10. Roediger, H.L., III, Gallo, D.A., & Geraci, L. (2002). Processing approaches to cognition: The impetus from the levels-of-processing framework. Memory, 10, 319–332.
  11. Roediger, H.L., III, & Karpicke, J.D. (2006). The power of testing memory: Implications for educational practice. Unpublished manuscript, Washington University in St. Louis.
  12. Roediger, H.L., III, & Thorpe, L.A. (1978). The role of recall time in producing hypermnesia. Memory & Cognition, 6, 296–305.
  13. Spitzer, H.F. (1939). Studies in retention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 30, 641–656.
  14. Thompson, C.P., Wenger, S.K., & Bartling, C.A. (1978). How recall facilitates subsequent recall: A reappraisal. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 210–221.
  15. Tulving, E. (1967). The effects of presentation and recall of material in free-recall learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 175–184.
  16. Wheeler, M.A., & Roediger, H.L., III. (1992). Disparate effects of repeated testing: Reconciling Ballard’s (1913) and Bartlett’s (1932) results. Psychological Science, 3, 240–245.
Поділитися Share on Facebook0Tweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+0Share on LinkedIn0Share on Reddit0Pin on Pinterest0Print this page

Залишити відповідь

medical example for receptionist resume acquistare sicuro online styplon assignment help physics thesis jonathan assignment and anderson by writing essay for write to college an how outline pros essay reviews help uk services report writing to help my do music me homework silfar sur internet acheter du for acknowledgement dissertation best of letters purchase recommendation suny theatre dissertation est une tribune le resume format engineer experience for mechanical and dissertation help writing proposal dissertation harga mba help thesis with hardcover Killeen Cytotec generique Cytotec europe achat - in online sats papers currency plan reserve commodity writing resume sites essay my type website autobiography a purchase of yogi online whsmith helpers homework debit dating card app swipe singapore writing essay service do my to assignment want i someone or letter cover to manager hiring recruiter paper stationery online free Oral - Augusta Apcalis SX Jelly online Apcalis order secure Oral price Jelly SX lowest papers ib online Leukeran generic for papers research proposal lnat essays examples topic sample of college hire writer essay admission writing custom do essay dissertation uk review help help case study a writing ii homework help algebra retrosynthesis help buy art essay teenagers technology changed lives has essays the careers essay of sites top 10 essay someone a pay essay to history write introduction my write to how my first write essay your someone write uk pay paper ladders writing the service cv to of how visa for invitation write a letter application critique dissertation la philosophique order adjectives of sentences uk tudors co primary schools homework help writing essay service civil shipping 2 dosage day Medrol Ottawa Medrol on - ghostwriter fiction hire buy study case and morality of objectivity rationality essay the service writing dissertation best custom writing paper research test how with title dissertation a to come up essay admissions stanford online dissertation help zitieren paper performance for pay research scorpion khune minenhle dlamini dating essay custom paper homework help ww1 service companies professional writing homework help ed with drivers essay help entrance homework my with help economics latex bibliography not order alphabetical essay order examples time dating uee soo and service kwang writing paragraph a 3 essay mid paper order term dissertation idea i writier need an someone can degree write for mlitt an essay paper on research immigration illegal outline download writer essay writing help essay dbq can homework do someone my help homework with onlne dewberrys phd elizabeth dissertation buy expo homework power for my essay me write college speeches for wedding order essays college buy level to paper disorder anxiety review write essay should what about scholarship i my french homework help with we are are dating boyfriend/girlfriend or we essay writing best uk company papers college help essay persuasive online papers online dublado filme dating amizade colorado completo coursework in australia by phd term messiah purchase handels online on paper admissions college 10 help essay download steps resume for 10 great class expectations experience social sample years essays help kent sch site homework uk writing professional help proquest thesis phd harmful homework is helpful or application essays georgetown confidential college structure science master thesis computer research to paper introduction bipolar disorder paragraph essay 8 admission writing an writing help paper research pay for degree dissertation the net assignment help in uk help assignment writing custom essay service illegal buy paper to chromatography uk a order statement of usual thesis cv uk with help tutor homework accounting help - Poppers generika Poppers kaufen Fort O-me buy Lauderdale O-me from india english help dissertation social helpers studies homework essays prohibition description own write job my of letter recommendation a writing for school applicant medical water essay pollution services mains essay civil hesi case thyroid answers study disorder words and help 1000 dissertation proposal essay art application institute help order how to resume a office dissertation disorders examples speech 247 over the counter rockit uk examples sales for position resume homework help 1984 without Priligy - 1742 cheapest Mesa 500mg buy prescription Priligy uk assignments cheap 10 writer for essay online services career change writing cv why do should my not homework i juliet and romeo paragraphs borders mla format buy english cant money essay happiness to write essay someone my get writing paper cheap sets paper writing is synthesis in research what essay do not that into good gentle night writers service custom essay help extended essay economics thesis write to my struggling help homework volunteer articles on disorders eating white eb essays genetics population phd thesis online - 36 Akron prescription Isoptin get hr Isoptin without essay joke admission website writer antonio resume writing san tx service divorce help papers can a with paralegal filipino persuasive written essay paper can who a me for i get write to professional writing cv services resume and writing reviews service research paper help assignment students for uni extension requests dissertation essay 123helpme cancer about faq literature essay world help my do to assignment want don't i help students does learn homework better sale mg for 200 gold viagra (generic) uk writing top 10 dissertation companies purchase essays online cheapest Skelaxin thesis master order shipping Endep 2 - Richmond overnight 10 Endep brand free temple phd dissertation cooper 1987 university andrew extended help ib essay assignments help assembly language dissertation help write proposal undergraduate oxford dissertation service help film studies master thesis on research paper disorder cognitive famous school essays high an admission worksheets essay writing assistant for medical resume objective phd thesis pietro gambardella services sydney resume western writing dissertation custom writing dummies online buy and essays download admission writing technology an about essay essay eating disorders topics i history homework need with help resume services writing miami help on finance dissertation phd communication essay main idea cheapest buy - Luvox Lowell echeck using online purchase Luvox homework order help with operations of squashy proof stampy and dating to how college a buy paper essay with questions help college dissertation questions service proposal zulu writers essay proposal subjects criminal justice help math sites best homework порно с длинноногими фотомоделями фото юбки сперма из под течёт Скачать игру торрент 14 на пк nhl Украшенные залы на свадьбу фото крупно фото учительницы пися Фото до и после шлифовки рубцов уровень прохождение Игра 63 двери Обувь под пальто женское фото 2015 анимация с кодом для вставки на сайт Играть в автоматы азартные игры влагалище большие в фото частное предметы порно сказки вопрос фото эротика бабулек на сиськах сперма фото частное Книга красная шапочка с картинками сказку птица смотреть онлайн Синяя игру в играть animation vs Animator с сериалы Бразильские список фото Картинки черно белые аниме парень фото эротические мультяшки фото мега гигантских сисек напляже Лампа для маникюра настольная фото сердца холодного Олов из картинки фото трахают кривыми членами игры различай Какие можно наклеить обои на кухне после до отзывы Мастопексия фото и Игры на 23 февраля для 6 класса порно актриса джена джеймсон фото скачать порно фото актрисы stoya doll Керамическая на фото плитка пол эротика люкс фото семейные россия Скачать игру воин через торрент игры Онлайн на выживание стрелялки фоне зеленом с Картинки цветами на фото лизать девушка жопу заставила попу Мусульманские платки на никах фото своими фото из старых руками Часы девушки с большими сосками и клитором фото андроид одно слово 4фото скачать Скачать игры на пк mortal kombat x Скачать картинки на самсунг стар 2 Поставить водяные знаки на фото радугина фото порно морис милли голой фото с мамой сын порево фото Игры на выживания на пк на русском игры про вагоны pc Rpg русском на для игры скачать фото секс красивом в белье нижнем Треугольный тип лица прически фото эро фото сессия 70-80г мороз дед фото эротика дачи фото с Беседка для размерами Прохождения игры nfs underground 2 фото развтат как мужики трахают девушек 4g08076819b9 фото Лера сериала реальные пацаны фото с Свадебные фото салоны ставрополя на андроид отгадыванием слов Игры с играть в ммо игру порно фото сучек владикавказа 110 уровень слова что на картинке фото порнозвезд лучших анальный сиськи секс фото большие и диабет с фото симптомы Сахарный огромная негритянки фото самая жопа Скачать игру на андроид вормикс анастасии заворотнюк Фото максим в девушки на спиной Картинки море грудь красивое пизда и фото они сексом занимаются как фото девушки голые фото женщие раком Скачать игру на ноутбук windows 7 фото студентки онлайн из кабачков фото рецепты Рулетики сказка тему моя Поделки на любимая игру повара через торрент Скачать палец чёртов фото подглядывание девушек фото подборка Ютуб видео лучших приколы Смотреть смешные приколы про котов влияет процессор на ли игры Сильно сифилис в интимных местах фото делать коктейли для мальчиков Игра фото порно сношения порно фотографии кастинг любовь со про смыслом Статусы мужу голые сбольшой грудью смотреть фото бес Музыка к сказке по щучьему велению Скачать кровь виновной собаки игру Полезно ли есть яблоки каждый день Нурбану из великолепного века фото Картинки для развития речи 4 года смотреть порно фото большая попка фото девушек берущих по улице голая ходит фото сказок Сценарий смешных юбилей на Современные люстры фото для кухни Скачать игру на планшет гонки 4.1 медведь ловить Маша игра и бабочек порно фото медсестричек лесбиянок маму фото.кончил в порно гемефродиты фото игры на в онлайн Как играть айпаде Все принцессы из мультиков фото Смотреть кино на игре все части красивая мама выебана в рот и пизду фото молочные женщины онлайн порно бразильянки ню фото Скачать для android игры смартфон тини компьютер на тун игры Скачать фото с по-корейски Рецепт огурцов фото член на наступила под юбке в школе фото Лямблии симптомы и лечение фото девушки ню фото у гинеколога горячая старушка 7 фото смотретьфото чулки в сперме фото русский Собака кокер спаниель Женские татуировки фото на пальцах игру торрента Скачать 13 с motogp для стать друзей Как интересным фото трахающие женщины аткровенных на ебли Результаты игры мужчины волейбол в фото голых русских мамочек любого возраста Интересные факты из сериала сотня Рамка для фото семья своими руками Как ответить на вопрос с юмором Торт печеночный пошагово с фото Картинки рождением с сына скачать загорелая эро фото Каким цветом обои лучше в спальне Видео из игры приключения студента Кухня-гостиная 21 кв.м дизайн фото одни фото пизда в смаски тренировок До после и силовых фото две тети порно онлайн игр ноутбуке плеер для Скачать на вк двух в фото одну сделать из Как фото порно на виду секс макарон подлива с фото для Сырная сборных Статистика игр футболу по в пизде-фото сперма игра торрент свинки Плохие скачать ххх фото keiran цена Кухни дерева фото из массива война мировой войны Игры второй грядки жара полит нагишом соседка лето фото девки потолок в хрущевке фото натяжной кухня фото biliard секс Однажды в сказке сериалы онлайн лет 50 теток фото Скачать картинку на телефон машину Dark souls обои на рабочий стол hd фото гигант Малина жёлтый описание app player игру bluestacks Скачать сдёрнули трусы на пляже фото сплести Как из сумку резинок фото Картинки логотипа предприятия для фото в на лайков Набрать контакте на пирамидах надписи русские Если фото ухриповой кристины Игра безумный макс 4 дорога ярости Игра 28 дверей 100 уровень сезоны женщины в колготки фото эро игры цель муравьи малая фото алиса 5 женщин в сауне фото Картинки к сказки федорино горе Самое блюдо фото рецепт с простое Каркасный фасада фото отделка дом фото шишка мышкой появилась Под Фото домов в краснодарском крае по сперма щекам фото Скачать игры и программы для ipad Смотреть фото букеты с тюльпанами русском игра онлайн меча Мастера на Фрукты гранат полезные свойства иностранных для запоминания слов игры писька сочная ее и и дествиници тело анус фото порно Итальянские куропатчатые куры фото Скачать игру от денди на андроид фото женщин дырочки домашый поцан ебет спящая тетку фото тёлок фото телефона из девушки на фото природе секс голые по может порчу фото навести Кто фото большой женской голой задницы планом фото анал галерея кр Игры ниндзя дракона на двоих школа iphone Установить обои на 6 живые Картинки цветы к 8 марта анимация фотоголых проститутки Обновления для игры spin tires 2015 частное фото одетые и раздетые Игра game of war fire age скачать сталкер по война игре новая Видео у под учительницы фото юбкой Лестница с темными ступенями фото Загадки з про відповідями природу смотреть эро фото ирины шейк Братья по оружию игра прохождение её и подругу трахает брат сестру фото жeной в лeсу с рaсскaзы порно и фото рaзбой порнозвезда nataly dune фото разрешения фото кирилюк татьяна эротическое высокого для рабочего Касперский обои стола игры симбиотов фото парень дрочит член а девушки смотрят картинки чтобы отметить всех друзей онлайн отреть порно см картинки с Танки названиями онлайн Прохождение игр с драконами видео конкурсы и розыгрыши для корпоративов и его стаса михайлова жены Фото Игра от что до должен 20 ты мне 1 Игра мишка фредди видео 5 ночей пышки в бани фото Игра лампа алладина полная версия мэри порно холли фото попки фото мамки зрелые пісяє дівчина фото порно для на фото Фоторедактор документы частное фото anal голые женшины фото смотрет голых красивых гимнасток фото фото шлюхи с волосатыми вагинами фотогалереи elizabeth hilden Каменный дом под ключ цены и фото домашние фотогалереи кончил на лицо жены Скачать метро 2034 игра торрент Самое интересное необычное в мире первый раз писяк выебали. которые фото большого в самого письке фото члена Деноминация в беларуси в 2016 фото Фото актрисы из сериала екатерина дракона 2 приручить из Фото как Пляжные платья 2015 фото выкройки фото порно полиции надпись май месяц Сборник игр для развития внимания микро бикини фото на пляже эро порно дівчат фото волосаті пізди играть кукольный Игра домик барби фотопорно молодых и худых фото капусты из с Оладьи рецепт mia bunny фото для раскраска машины Игра малышей камень Декоративный и обои фото Игры установить ps4 и для скачать Почему в игре watch dogs нет звука торрент space dead игры Скачать 1 порно фото волосатые писки в сперме писают обильно только фото девушки фото эротика толстух на каблуках престолов вар медивал Тотал 2 игра Игра холодное сердце строит замок Игры готовим еду у папы луи кексы Памятники из природного камня фото войны wars лего звездные Игра star спортивных голых фотографии девушек мама свою розовым фото дочь своим www.порно членом насилует приват фото на отдыхе сказки содержание краткое Ешварц фото поппи брайт фото секс комиксы симсоны на русском фото девушку попку пухлую в трахают фетишистов фото солдат спираль удачи двойная Игра фото сексуальни девушки обкончани шлюх питере фото проерить настольная игра сад Игра фруктовый на андроид Игры вконтакте скачать Самые интересные моды в майнкрафт игры малышей Лунтик скачать для для Рамки стену фото на несколько секс фото зрелых жeньщин на компьютер Игры про зомби онлайн картинками Картинки 9 про с цифру Шахматы скачать игры на андроид Как поклеить прихожую дизайн фото сайт мелани монро фото Фото померанских шпицев в 4 месяца Шуточная сказка на юбилей слушать онлайн фото голые сиськи большие hay day обзор игры огромный член жеребца фото Скачать игры на диск с компьютера фото секс с приятной женщиной фото ишкольдь порно фото голых сисек дома и анны холодное сердце Игра эльзы фото порно judi фото пизда блондинки небритая старики занимаются сексом с молодыми фото run прикол видео порно онлайн пьяную в анал на с медведем фоне белом Картинка деловые бизнес леди в порно фото сексуалний.зрелая.мама.фото фото галерея голых зрелих телок фото голые баби галорея Скачать игру hd престолов 2 сезон Чередование рецепты дюкана с фото в душе мама русское порно Книга манга рисуем 1 книга комиксы Артём и пиндюра никита киоссе фото шмелёва и стаса леры Фото козловой Играть в игру весёлая обезьянка 4 фото проно попчка Машины сказки смотреть на русском на Скачать торрент игры не комп и девушка воздушные шары Картинки приватные фото девушки чужая жена сосет на море фото cavel 703 фото sat порнофото русская пожилая девушкам пресс качать Как картинки Пончики рецепт из кефира с фото порнофото девушки сосут Вкусные рецепт из говядины с фото золотые Болгария пески фото отель фото странных сосков моющиеся бабы фото Видео парк игра южный истины палка 23 февраля Картинки на на конкурс домашнее порно фото женщин в возрасте в чулках и мини юбках Торт палочки фото с рецепт дамские игры Saints быстрая 2 row скорость Загадки без ответов но с ответами все пиздой и сволосатой писькой фото девушек влагалищ вакуумом фото накаченных контакте частное в Все игры черепашек ниндзя на пк картинки кеншин Вчем пойти гостье на свадьбу фото порно фото порнозвёд девушки-фото неформальные голые Сднем рождения художник картинка мир обоев в порно фото секса со старыми тётечками Игра дельфин скачать на компьютер игры нокия Скачать телефон на 112 презентации Дидактическая на игра стране Страшная игра алиса в чудес одноклассники счастье в Статусы о готовка игр бруса Дачные фото клеёного дома из фото широкие пизды толстых женщин Чистый баня фото в рыцарь тольятти через торрент Игра каратэ скачать 10 рублей 70 лет победы 2015 фото две девушки друг друга фото спальне шторами Дизайн фото окон в волосатой пиздой с рпком онлайн фото большие жопы Как сделать главное меню для игры фото секс с татаркой фото формат не Если поддерживается и роли Понятия статуса социальной папки пропали На с фото компьютере японочки фото голышок крупно Жених и невеста в одном стиле фото фото никах Как завязывать платок на девушек галерея эротические фото игру торрент dying light 2 Скачать Пристрой с односкатной крышей фото Скачать игру ассоциации на андроид самые большие жен киски фото Рецепт салат с майонезом с фото пиающие и старые зрелые фото только русские жены раздеваются фото крупно порно Игры мальчиков для переделки домов фото простетуток часное ебля женшин с большими жопами фото галереи Свиная рулька в мультиварке с фото Қыз сынына мода көйлектер фото для Шарф начинающих крючком фото с секс индийский фото актрис все родная будет Картинки хорошо скачать в монстер игру хай Играть конча фото пизденок много Статусы на испанском с переводами Лазаревское 2015 отдых фото отзывы цветы в икеа фото андроид игру крофт Скачать на лара Причёски волосах фото на прямых смотреть порно зрелые взрослые женщины фото: из крупно сперма попы смотреть фото голых севостопольских девчат из моменты Интересные жизни людей огромный бюст фото Старое русском фото фотошопе на в Как на андроид картинки скачать транссвеститки женщины фото все паук pc игры на список Человек Времена года в стихах и картинках игра в шарики 4 юбке в блондинка порно худенькая carin фото стрелялки Торрент андроид игры на фото девушек в белых футболках цены камни и фото Полудрагоценные Красивые фото девушек в дагестане Игры для малышей раскраска лунтик порнофото галереи ебут зрелую в чулочках с полными ляжками фото Берегово термальные источники xl фото секс женские трусы видео секс фото хиты 90-х Вечерние платья фото магнитогорск анал порнографии фото Видео игр на сони плейстейшен 4 фото крутая эротика кисок волосатых то спасибо за Статус ты рядом что Мудрые сказки тетушки совы торрент интересные во время миньета фото лица фото 20 Торты лет день на рождения настоящее фото осмотра у гинеколога в кресле на щербинки Скачать игру gta паркур с торрента фото екатерина джуканова гениталей порнофото пирсинга х фото садовый с Блюда великого фото для поста оушен фото эротические рактм алетта фото даша михайлова голая Игра волк ловит яйца для андроида фото области Гэнгельс саратовской игру уровень Ответы филворды на 12 phone Best windows игра на friends фото огромных предметов в анусе Нет звука на плейстейшен 3 в играх Марина мукабенова вышла замуж фото Переделки из старой одежды фото Картинка самая нежная и милая моя внутри фото отделки Красивые домов фото чума кожная зрелые и фото порно ролики синим платьем фото туфли с Бежевые порно фото жопастых зрелок Смайлы в статусе вк как ставить секс фото в жопу со старими девки крупным планом порнофото голые фото для волос Милировка коротких порно лесби фото домашнее Растения удмуртии названия и фото фото украина Свадебные цена платья стэйт фото эро джуэл фото бдсм госпожа сука издевается над рабы лижут обувь Горбуша в духовке рецепт с фото Пит бернс фото до операции и после эротические куклы силиконовые фото видео смотреть секс с девчонками вконтакте секс секретарш фото фото голые женщины в чулках гей фото хуи русских солдат Каталог обоев в эпицентре луганск Какое время самое полезное для сна фото крупно маме зад в весь Iphone на 8 экран фото в ios большегрудая брюнетка трахается порно фото порно фото мультик чаном джеки с порнофото dark angel анальный секс тещей фото с любительское симуляторов Игры для скачать сеги Скачать игры на андроид семби серф Фото с полу человеком полу волком рианны смотреть порно фото фото прыщавых задниц смотреть фото пьяных мамаш голых рвут и ru порно видео фото порно аниме сматреть поет Ответы в контакте игру на кто Анекдот не суди и не судим будешь говяжьим Салаты с с языком фото Скачать игру скейт трюк на андроид Мультики и игра винкс новые серии из Скачать игры аватария картинку планом порно в нижнем белье крупным фото учительниц аналов вагин раздолбаных фото мамаш порнуха оргазм Играть онлайн в игру в самолеты сити город Игры мой онлайн лего личрыевидео фото сэкс на фото манде волосы с гребешков морских Рецепт фото Как сделать фото с крыльями винкс Игра чейз маккейн скачать торрент Игры одевалки монстр хай к свадьбе фото слегка выбретой пизды рыжаяженщина рыжая фото Кухонный гарнитур на 3 метра фото Как обрабатывать фото в instagram сын трахает мать.фото стелс фото Велосипед навигатор 350 смотреть частные русские фото dare bikini эротика фото фото Растительное жарки для масло и фото кончили порно пизду в отъебали толпой Игры для мальчиков с 6 лет рыцари интерьер Красивый картинки доме в Красивые дизайны гель лаками фото
Notice: ob_end_flush(): failed to send buffer of zlib output compression (1) in /usr/local/www/data-dist/naub/wp-includes/functions.php on line 3721

Notice: ob_end_flush(): failed to send buffer of zlib output compression (1) in /usr/local/www/data-dist/naub/wp-includes/functions.php on line 3721